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Pakistan earthquakes, floods
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 17, 2010 11:44 pm    Post subject: Pakistan earthquakes, floods  Reply with quote

Kashmir Valley region rattled by more tremors
March 31, 2012  PAKISTAN
- An earthquake measuring 5.2 on the Richter scale hit Afghanistan on Saturday morning, sending tremors as far as Kashmir. The epicenter of the quake was said to be the Hindu Kush region. There have been no reports of casualties so far. “An earthquake of 5.2 magnitude was experienced at 9.46 am in Kashmir Valley,” Aamir Ali, coordinator of Natural Disaster Management Cell, said. This is the second tremor to shake the valley this month. On March 12, a moderate intensity quake was experienced in Kashmir Valley. Ali said people rushed out of their homes in panic and took shelter in open spaces. There was no immediate report of any loss of life or damage to property, he added. –Hindustan Times

Pakistan floods 2010 **
Health crisis

Afghanistan earthquakes

Earth quakes in the little stans

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PostPosted: Sat Mar 31, 2012 11:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pakistan floods kill 371
29 Sep 2012
 Monsoon floods in Pakistan have killed 371 people and affected nearly 4.5 million. Pakistan has suffered devastating floods in the past two years, including the worst in its history in 2010, when catastrophic inundations across the country killed almost 1,800 people and affected 21 million.

As in 2010 and 2011, most of those hit by the latest floods are in Sindh province, where the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) said 2.8 million were affected, with nearly 890,000 in Punjab and 700,000 in Baluchistan.
Nearly 290,000 people around the country have been forced to seek shelter in relief camps, NDMA said in figures published on its website.

Dozens dead, stranded after flash floods in Afghanistan, Pakistan
Aug 2013
- Flash floods caused by unusually heavy rain across Afghanistan and Pakistan killed more than 160 people and stranded villagers in remote areas without shelter, food or power in one of South Asia's worst natural disasters this year.
Mountainous Afghanistan was the worst hit.
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 16, 2013 6:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Major 7.8 earthquake IRAN-Pakistan border
Apr 16, 2013
at 03:44pm at epicenter
Depth  9.4 miles
Strong tremors felt in Delhi, The earthquake measured 8 on the richter scale.
Magnitude 8 earthquake strikes Iran; tremors felt in UAE, Oman and India.

Pakistan bears brunt of Iranian earthquake, 13 killed

ALL world quakes list / MAP

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PostPosted: Wed Apr 24, 2013 12:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Afghan quake kills seven, injures dozens
4/24/13  SEVEN people were killed and dozens injured when a 6.2 quake struck eastern Afghanistan, officials say. Six people, including some children, died in Nangarhar province on Wednesday, and 75 people were injured, said provincial spokesman Ahmad Zia Abdulzai. One person was killed and one injured in neighbouring Kunar province and many homes were destroyed, said local government spokesman Wasefullah Wasef. Strong tremors were felt in the capital Kabul and Islamabad in neighbouring Pakistan, the Pakistan meteorological office said. The quake hit at 0925 GMT (1925 AEST) and was centred in southeastern Afghanistan at a depth of 70km.

April 24, 2013 – 5.6 quake AFGHANISTAN - A moderate earthquake hit Afghanistan and its tremors were felt in Kabul, Islamabad and as far away as New Delhi. The U.S. Geological Survey said the 5.6-magnitude earthquake was 65 kilometers deep and struck 25 kilometers northwest of Jalalabad, the main town in eastern Afghanistan which is close to the Pakistani border. Pakistan’s meteorological office put the magnitude at 6.2. Ahmad Zia Abdulzai, a provincial government spokesman, tells VOA that six people have died and 64 others were injured in the quake and that a large number of structures in Nangahar province have been damaged. Some buildings reportedly swayed in New Delhi, causing a mild panic. Last week a powerful 7.6-magnitude earthquake killed 41 people in the Baluchistan region of Pakistan, and just a few days later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake killed about 600 people in southeastern China. –VOA NEWS
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PostPosted: Thu Apr 25, 2013 12:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Afghan quake and floods kill 38

A powerful earthquake and flash floods which struck Afghanistan this week killed at least 38 people and damaged hundreds of homes, the presidential palace said Thursday, offering aid to victims. Wednesday’s quake killed 17 and injured 126 in the eastern province of Nangarhar while 300 homes were damaged, a statement said. In neighboring Kunar province, one person was killed, four injured and 45 homes damaged. The continuing flash floods in the northern province of Balkh have killed 20 and damaged 1,900 houses, it said. Floods had also cost lives and damaged property in Ghor and Baghlan provinces, the statement said without giving any figures. President Hamid Karzai had ordered emergency help for victims, it added. The quake centered in Nangarhar caused widespread damage in some villages because most of the houses are built of mud. Provincial government spokesman Ahmad Zia Abdulzai put the death toll there at 16 but said it may rise. At an emergency meeting Thursday, the private sector and relief agencies agreed to provide emergency aid and the central government also offered assistance, he said. Mud-built homes were also no match for raging floodwaters in Balkh. “The badly affected areas are impoverished villages where most of the homes are mud-built and can be easily damaged when floods come,” said provincial government spokesman Munir Ahmad Farhad on Wednesday.
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PostPosted: Sat May 16, 2015 9:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

28 Jul 2013   Earthquakes Burp Up Methane Bubbles

The long-suspected link between earthquakes and underwater methane bursts has finally been confirmed, reports a study published July 28 in the journal Nature Geoscience.

Though the temblor wasn't caught in the act, the strong shaking left clues in methane-rich mud and sand offshore of Pakistan, where two of Earth's tectonic plates collide at the Makran subduction zone. In 1945, a magnitude-8.1 earthquake struck along the subduction zone, killing at least 300 people and triggering a tsunami.

Recently, researchers studying methane seeps in the Arabian Sea discovered unexpectedly large quantities of methane gas and minerals such as barite and sulfate just below the seafloor surface, on a ridge near the Makran subduction zone. The minerals and gas accumulate at a certain rate, so the team could calculate when the methane indicators first appeared — between 1916 and 1962. Combined with other clues, such as seismic surveys of disturbed sediments, the scientists concluded that the 1945 earthquake released methane gas into the ocean.

"Three lines of evidence came together saying the earthquake triggered the amplification of the methane flux," said David Fischer, lead study author and a geochemist at the MARUM Institute at the University of Bremen in Germany.

Methane seeps and hydrates pair up with subduction zones around the world. These zones are areas where one of Earth's tectonic plates dives beneath another and where some of the world's strongest earthquakes occur. The incredible pressure from the colliding plates squeezes methane out of seafloor mud and folds the sedimentary layers into ridges — the perfect environment for natural gas deposits. [Infographic: Tallest Mountain to Deepest Ocean Trench]

Fischer and his colleagues think the 1945 shaking released a deposit of free methane gas that was locked beneath a layer of methane hydrates, compounds that trap gas in icy lattices. The free gas continues to bubble up to the seafloor today.

"This is the strongest circumstantial evidence we've seen so far on earthquakes perturbing the gas hydrate system," said Anne Trehu, a geophysicist at Oregon State University who was not involved in the study. "It's a difficult phenomenon to verify and I wouldn't say that this is a direct observation, but it's a nice study that shows quite a plausible correlation in time and space."

There's no way to know how much gas erupted during the earthquake. However, modeling of the methane bubbling up today indicates that roughly 261 cubic feet (7.4 cubic meters) of methane gas has been released since 1945, equivalent to the methane coming from a single mud volcano, or enough to fill 2,500 swimming pools, Fischer said. "This is something to consider in the global greenhouse gas budget," Fischer said. Methane gas from subduction zone earthquakes could be an important source of greenhouse gases in the environment, he said.

LiveScience asked Ken Caldeira, a climate scientist at Stanford University's Carnegie Institution for Science, to put that number into perspective. The seep's current emissions are about one-millionth of the natural global methane flux, which is on the order of 100 teragrams (100 megatons), Caldeira said. "I'm skeptical that any one volcano could have a big climate impact," said Caldeira, referring to the study's mud volcano comparison.

Gas stays in the sea
Another caveat is that big subduction zone earthquakes are rare, striking only once a year or less on average. However, no one knows if a sizable shaker is needed to release methane gas from seafloor sediments, or smaller earthquakes can unleash bubbles. And there is evidence of even bigger seafloor gas blowouts just east of New Zealand's subduction zone, including giant circular pockmarks 0.6 miles (1 kilometer) in diameter.

But subduction zone trenches are also deep, which means the gases unleashed during earthquakes may never reach to the surface. The sediments sampled at the Makran ridge were more than 9,100 feet (2,800 meters) deep. "Methane released at these water depths doesn't make it to the atmosphere," said Carolyn Ruppel, chief of the U.S. Geological Survey's Gas Hydrates Project in Woods Hole, Mass. "It's dissolved in the water column or it can be oxidized by microbes in the water column," said Ruppel, who was not involved in the study.

Yet even if methane from earthquakes doesn't reach the atmosphere, scientists are still interested in understanding how methane seeps and methane hydrates contribute to the ocean's total carbon levels. (Methane eventually is converted into carbon dioxide in the ocean and the atmosphere.) The new study could help modelers better predict contributions from seafloor methane sources. [Watch: Tracking an Ocean of Carbon]

"What we care about is the integrated global [methane] flux out of the seafloor into the ocean and we don't begin to know what that number is," Ruppel said.
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PostPosted: Sat May 16, 2015 9:59 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Major 7.8 earthquake in Pakistan
Sept. 24, 2013  Powerful 7.8 earthquake strikes Balochistan

A powerful earthquake of 7.8-magnitude has struck a remote area of south-west Pakistan, the USGS says.
It struck at 16:29 local time (11:29 GMT) at a depth of 23km (15 miles), 145 miles south-east of Dalbandin in Balochistan province.
It was reportedly felt in the Indian capital Delhi, where some buildings shook.

Balochistan is Pakistan's largest but least populated province.
The province is prone to earthquakes, with at least 35 people killed in another 7.8-magnitude earthquake that was centred in south-eastern Iran in April.

Initial media reports say some houses have collapsed in the Khuzdar and Awaran areas of Balochistan.
However, there have so far been no confirmed reports of casualties.
Pakistan's chief meteorologist Mohammad Riaz told reporters it was a major earthquake that could cause extensive damage.
"But it would depend on how dense the population is in the area around the epicentre," he said.
Pakistan's meteorological office gave the magnitude of the earthquake as 7.7.
Light tremors were also said to have been felt in Karachi

Tectonic Summary
The September 24, 2013 M7.7 earthquake in south-central Pakistan occurred as the result of oblique-strike-slip type motion at shallow crustal depths. The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with rupture within the Eurasia plate above the Makran subduction zone. The event occurred within the transition zone between northward subduction of the Arabia plate beneath the Eurasia plate and northward collision of the India plate with the Eurasia plate. The epicenter of the event is 69km north of Awaran, Pakistan, and 270km north of Karachi, Pakistan (population 11.6 million).

40 killed as 7.8 earthquake strikes Pakistan, shaking felt in New Delhi
30% of houses in the impoverished Awaran district have been destroyed, Abdul Qadoos, deputy speaker of the Baluchistan assembly, told Reuters.
Roofs of two schools have collapsed in Awaran, according to Pakistan’s English-language daily The Express Tribune. The paper said that houses have been damaged across the province while the injured are in the process of being escorted to nearby hospitals. This is yet to be officially confirmed.  
The earthquake also created a new island off Pakistan's Gwadar coastline, according to local paper Express News. The island stands approximately half a mile into the sea. A crowd reportedly gathered to observe the new island, which apparently has a mountainous terrain.

Pakistan news
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PostPosted: Sat May 16, 2015 10:02 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hundreds dead in Pakistan 7.8 Earthquake
Sep 25, 2013
A powerful earthquake has killed 250 and injured 340 more in Balochistan, Pakistan.
The 7.7-magnitude quake struck near Awaran.
Many houses were flattened and thousands of people have spent the night in the open.
After the quake, a small island appeared off the coast near the port of Gwadar.
The quake was so powerful it was felt as far away as Karachi and Delhi India.
Entire villages are reported to have been flattened in Awaran.

265 dead - and New Island Emerges in Arabian Sea - FIRST PHOTOS
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PostPosted: Sat May 16, 2015 10:02 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

PAKISTAN - Volcanism is culprit behind sudden appearance of island
September 25, 2013
–  Mud houses in the mountains crumbled as a 7.7-magnitude earthquake shook western Pakistan early on Tuesday. Meanwhile, on the coast, residents of Gwadar saw a solitary island rise from the sea. Older residents of the coastal town said the land emergence was déjà vu — an earthquake in 1968 produced an island that stayed for one year and then vanished, Ali Mohammad, 60, and Azeem Baloch, 57, told NBC News. Seismologists suspect the island is a temporary formation resulting from a “mud volcano,” a jet of mud, sand and water that gushed to the surface as the temblor churned and pressurized that slurry under the ocean floor. “Sandy layers underground are shaken, and sand grains jiggle and become more compact,” John Armbruster, a seismologist at the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University told NBC News. The shifting sand layers are compacted and pressurize the water, which gushed upwards, carrying mud and sand along with it. This “liquefaction” of sand and mud layers take place after any earthquake, but these sudden islands are usually spotted after strong earthquakes, at least 7- or 8-magnitude events. The distance of the island from the epicenter of the quake is a “little bit surprising,” Armbruster said, granted that “the sediments are quite soft and susceptible to this.” Back in the 1940s, a sizable island rose from the sea in the area, but it didn’t last long. After an earthquake near Karachi struck, the British Indian Geological survey recorded a new island “big enough that people could land a boat and walk on it,” Armbruster said. “Within days, weeks” — he wasn’t sure how long — “it washed away.”

Researchers at the United States Geological Survey are investigating the new formation, Paul Earle, a USGS geophysicist told NBC News, but have yet to get independent confirmation of it. It is clear that “the islands are not created because the ground was … pushed up by the earthquake,” he said, but more likely it was a secondary effect of shifting sediments. He also agrees the formation appears to have been caused by a mud volcano, but added that they don’t need an earthquake to set them off. There are “mud volcanoes in Yellowstone that have not been triggered by earthquakes,” he said. While mud volcanoes are typical of watery, loose sediments layers off the coast of Baluchistan, more substantial instant islands — or “land uprisings” — do suddenly appear in other parts of the world, Stephan Graham, a geologist at Stanford University told NBC News. They’re typically seen along fault lines where one tectonic plate slides under another, like the hungry subduction zone under New Zealand. Fault lines like the San Andreas, at which the Pacific Plate and the North American plates slide past each other sideways, are less likely to see such upcrops, Graham said. It also takes a pretty sizable earthquake to push up an entirely new land feature. “You wouldn’t expect to see it in a 3- or 4-magnitude [quake],” Graham said, it would take a stronger temblor of 7 or 8 magnitude to change the landscape. –NBC News

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