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Pharmageddon
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BornAgain2



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PostPosted: Sat Mar 07, 2015 1:17 pm    Post subject:  Reply with quote

This was from a wildly popular 1993 movie, "The Fugitive" - this is another example of Hellywood telegraphing their punches - the main character in this movie(Harrison Ford) was accused of murdering his wife. Then after he escapes from prison, he slowly finds out that a big pharmaceutical company may have falsified his research, so they can put this scam drug on the market.

Yes, it's alot like what we're seeing pharmaceutical companies doing today.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sijd3JB8neI
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PostPosted: Wed Mar 11, 2015 9:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maker Of Children's Tylenol Contaminated With Metal Particles Pleads Guilty
3/11/15
https://www.yahoo.com/health/make...ntaminated-with-113346156332.html

A subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson pleaded guilty Tuesday to a federal criminal charge that it sold over-the-counter infant’s and children’s liquid medicine containing metal particles.

McNeil Consumer Healthcare, of Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, acknowledged failing to take corrective action after discovering the adulterated bottles of Infants’ and Children’s Tylenol and Children’s Motrin. The company agreed to pay $25 million to resolve the case.

Metal particles, including nickel, iron and chromium, were introduced during the manufacturing process at McNeil’s plant in Fort Washington. Prosecutors said McNeil knew about the problem for nearly a year but failed to take immediate steps to fix it.

The company and prosecutors said in court Tuesday that no one was injured.

"McNeil’s failure to comply with current good manufacturing practices is seriously troubling," Acting Assistant Attorney General Mizer said in a statement after the judge accepted McNeil’s plea.

"The Department of Justice will continue to be aggressive in pursuing and punishing companies such as McNeil that disregard a process designed to assure quality medicines, especially OTC drugs for infants and children," he said.

McNeil is a unit of Johnson & Johnson. The New Brunswick, New Jersey, health care giant has struggled with scores of product recalls since 2009. In late 2009, the company recalled Tylenol, Motrin, and Benadryl after consumers reported a moldy odor coming from newly opened bottles and complaints of stomach pains and diarrhea were filed.

In this case, McNeil first learned of the particle problem in May 2009, when a consumer complained about black specks inside a bottle of Infants’ Tylenol, according to court documents. McNeil subsequently found metal particles during production but continued making the liquid medicines for several more months.

"There were investigative steps taken, but not all of the steps required under all of our internal operating procedures," company attorney Michael Schwartz told The Associated Press on Tuesday.

McNeill eventually traced the problem to the machinery at its plant in Fort Washington and issued a recall. The Food and Drug Administration said the potential for serious medical problems was remote but advised consumers to stop using the medicine.

The suburban Philadelphia plant — which was linked to several recalls of Tylenol and other nonprescription drugs for children and adults — was shuttered in April 2010 and rebuilt from the ground up, but it has yet to reopen.

The company is operating under an agreement with the FDA requiring increased inspections and oversight at its factories.

McNeil said Tuesday it has significantly improved its procedures.

"McNeil has been implementing enhanced quality and oversight standards across its entire business to ensure we are best able to meet our commitment to consumers, patients and doctors who rely on our products," company spokeswoman Carol Goodrich said.
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 16, 2015 6:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://finance.yahoo.com/news/agi....html?soc_src=mail&soc_trk=ma
Aging baby boomers bring drug habits into middle age
3/16/15

UPLAND, Calif.—From the time he was a young man coming of age in the 1970s, Mike Massey could have served as a poster child for his generation, the baby boomers. He grew his hair long to the dismay of his father, surfed, played in rock bands and says he regularly got high on marijuana and ****.

The wild times receded as he grew older. In his 30s, he stopped using drugs altogether, rose into executive positions with the plumbers and pipe fitters union, bought a house in this Los Angeles suburb and started a family. But at age 50, Mr. Massey injured his knee running. He took Vicodin for the pain but soon started using pills heavily, mixing the opioids with alcohol, he said.

“It reminded me of getting high and getting loaded,” said Mr. Massey, now 58 years old, who went into recovery and stopped using drugs and alcohol in 2013. “Your mind never forgets that.”

Today, the story of this balding, middle-aged executive continues to reflect that of his generation.

Older adults are abusing drugs, getting arrested for drug offenses and dying from drug overdoses at increasingly higher rates. These surges have come as the 76 million baby boomers, born between 1946 and 1964, reach late middle age. Facing the pains and losses connected to aging, boomers, who as youths used drugs at the highest rates of any generation, are once again—or still—turning to drugs.

The trend has U.S. health officials worried. The sharp increase in overdose deaths among older adults in particular is “very concerning,” said Wilson Compton, deputy director for the federal government’s National Institute on Drug Abuse.

The rate of death by accidental drug overdose for people aged 45 through 64 increased 11-fold between 1990, when no baby boomers were in the age group, and 2010, when the age group was filled with baby boomers, according to an analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mortality data. That multiple of increase was greater than for any other age group in that time span.

The surge has pushed the accidental overdose rate for these late middle age adults higher than that of 25- to 44-year-olds for the first time. More than 12,000 boomers died of accidental drug overdoses in 2013, the most recent data available. That is more than the number that died that year from either car accidents or influenza and pneumonia, according to the CDC.

“Generally, we thought of older individuals of not having a risk for drug abuse and drug addiction,” Dr. Compton said. “As the baby boomers have aged and brought their habits with them into middle age, and now into older adult groups, we are seeing marked increases in overdose deaths.”

Experts say the drug problem among the elderly has been caused by the confluence of two key factors: a generation with a predilection for mind-altering substances growing older in an era of widespread opioid painkiller abuse. Pain pills follow marijuana as the most popular ways for aging boomers to get high, according to the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, which conducts an annual national survey on drug use. Opioid painkillers also are the drug most often involved in overdoses, followed by antianxiety drugs, **** and heroin.

Wall Street Journal interviews with dozens of older drug users and recovering addicts revealed an array of personal stories behind the trend. Some had used drugs their entire lives and never slowed down. Others had used drugs when they were younger, then returned to them later in life after a divorce, death in the family or job loss.

“If you have a trigger, and your youth is caught up in that Woodstock mentality, you’re going to revert back,” said Jamie Huysman, 60, clinical adviser to the senior program at Caron Treatment Centers, a residential drug treatment organization that plans to break ground this summer on a $10 million medical center in Pennsylvania catering to older adults. “We were pretty conditioned that we could be rebellious, that we could take drugs, and so this is how we respond today.”

Drug-rehabilitation programs are grappling with how to handle the boom in older patients. More than 5.7 million people over the age of 50 will need substance-abuse treatment by the year 2020, according to estimates from government researchers. Meanwhile, hospitals have seen a sharp increase in the number of older adults admitted for drug-related health problems, government statistics show.

“We’re still in the process of figuring out: How do we ensure we have a strong workforce that can address this, and the appropriate settings to address this?” said Peter Delany, director of the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality at the Department of Health and Human Services.

Over the past decade, illicit drug use among people over 50 has increased at the same time that the rate for teens—the group that draws the most public concern when it comes to substance abuse—has declined, according to the federal government’s annual survey on drug use. A similar pattern exists for drug arrests: rates fell in nearly every younger age group in the country between 1997 and 2012, but not for those between the ages of 45 and 64.

Boomers have always ranked high on the charts that measure drug use. In 1979, high school seniors, born in 1961, set the record for self-reported illicit drug use in the past year, according to an annual national survey called Monitoring the Future. The rate of drug use among boomers has fallen significantly as the cohort has aged, but it is about triple the percentage of people in the previous generation who reported drug use in their older years.

Neil Howe, a historian and author of several books on generational trends, said that boomers have always stood out for their willingness to break with convention and take risks, which included using drugs.

“They themselves continue to behave in a less inhibited fashion even as younger generations turn away from that type of risk taking,” he said.

(Rates of major sexually transmitted diseases have also increased for people over 45 in recent years, according to the CDC.)

Rehab centers that were designed for younger people are adjusting to the new clientele. Getting rid of bunk beds, hiring more experienced addiction counselors and providing medical care on-site are some measures being taken. Amid prescription painkiller abuse, old-age aches and pains are treated with acupuncture and nonaddictive painkillers. Another change is therapy sessions that are designed for older adults.

At the Hanley Center at Origins in West Palm Beach, Fla., there is a treatment program just for baby boomers separate from both older and younger adults. They live together in the same building during their stay and attend group therapy together.

At one session, a woman who said she was an alcoholic told the dozen people sitting in a circle that she had received roses from her family that day. It made her feel guilty: “I really don’t deserve anything from them,” she said, breaking down in tears.

Deborah Christensen, a counselor and boomer herself, then led an exercise where other recovering addicts acted out the woman’s family dynamics. In the scene, her adult daughter was the voice of reason, calming the family during frequent fights over substance abuse.

The guilt from having forced adult children into that role struck a chord. “I identify,” another woman chimed in. “My ex-husband was an opiate addict, and I saw my oldest as the caretaker.”

John Dyben, who heads the boomer and older adult programs at Hanley, said that there are different barriers to getting each generation on the road to recovery. With the oldest generation, it is shame about admitting an addiction; with youth, it is a belief that they are indestructible. With boomers, he said, it is an attitude that they know all the answers and a belief that drugs aren’t necessarily a bad thing.

To that end, counselors at Hanley put less emphasis on the traditional stories about how substance abuse ruins people’s lives when treating boomers because, “for every story you’ve got, they’ve got 15 others about people who expanded their minds with drugs and then became successful CEOs,” Dr. Dyben said.

Instead, they focus on educating them about the science of addiction. They also give them a more active role in planning their own treatment.

Opiates are the drug that is most frequently landing boomers in treatment, according to federal data that tracks admissions to centers that receive some public funding. In 2012 for those aged 45-64, 36% of admissions for drugs were for heroin, with an additional 12% for opioid painkillers, followed by 22% for crack ****, and 10% for methamphetamines.

Alcohol and alcohol mixed with a secondary drug made up more than half of the overall admissions.

For Clare Mannion, 64, the trigger was looming retirement from a long career in real estate. Five years ago, Ms. Mannion said, as she settled down in Florida after a lifetime of moving around the country, “most people were saying, ‘What more do you want? Why aren’t you ready to’—the magic word—‘retire?’ ”

“What I heard, given my personality was, ‘Aren’t you ready to retire from life?’ ” she said. “Internally, I felt pretty hopeless, and what was the most easily accessible were prescription drugs and alcohol.”

Ms. Mannion said she would mix antianxiety pills known as benzodiazepines with alcohol. After two DUI arrests, Ms. Mannion landed in treatment in 2013 in a program designed for baby boomers and run by the Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation in Florida. She has been clean ever since, she said. Today, she said, she feels “electrically alive.”

For older adults, the side effects of getting high can be much harsher than for younger people, experts say. As the body ages, the metabolism slows, making it harder to process drugs, said NIDA’s Dr. Compton.

The rates of hospital stays and emergency room visits for drug-related health problems have skyrocketed for older adults in the past two decades. In 2012, people between the ages of 45 and 64 had the highest rate of inpatient hospital stays for opioid overuse; two decades ago, it was those between 25 and 44, according to the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

For Mr. Massey, the Southern California executive, a near-overdose two years ago was one of the dramatic events that pushed him toward getting clean. One night, sitting on his bed after taking a ****tail of painkillers, he had a seizure and blacked out. “Next thing I know I was waking up and my wife was upset and my kids were crying and these paramedics were pumping on my chest,” he said.

Before getting hooked on pills, Mr. Massey said he thought he had left the habits of his younger days behind. Back then, in the 1970s, doing a line of **** was a pickup move at parties, and pot was plentiful. He worked as a welder in San Diego and played lead guitar in a rock band called Loose Enz. His idol was Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards. “I tried to live like I was in the Stones,” he said dryly. “I was on tour every night.”

Lucky Dare Fleming, 66, a friend who was a drummer in the band, said he didn’t realize at the time that drugs would become a serious problem for Mr. Massey. “Me, I’ve just gone along and dabbled recreationally,” said Mr. Fleming. “It was a little more alluring to Mike, and he had to get away from it.”

Mr. Massey’s late father, George, was a World War II vet, a tough steward in the plumbers and pipe fitters union, and a heavy drinker, said his son, who recalls him carrying his union contract, a half-pint of whiskey and a pistol in his lunch pail.

A knee injury, and pills

After getting clean, Mr. Massey said he came to realize that he had been harboring deep shame about not being strong or tough enough his whole life, and that a violent childhood had affected him more deeply than he knew. He grew up in hardscrabble neighborhoods, carried weapons to school and fought frequently. But he doesn’t like to cast blame for his drug use, saying, “I never put anything in my body against my will.”

After he stopped using drugs—which included a stint with meth in his late 20s—for the first time, his career took off: At age 35, he was promoted to a leadership position at a Los Angeles-based trust fund that represents the interests of unions and union contractors in the plumbing and piping industry. He met his wife, Dena, bought a home in the suburbs and had two children.

Then eight years ago, while exercising to lose weight, he aggravated an old knee injury and took a few Vicodin pills from a friend for the pain. A day later, he took a handful.

“I thought, no big deal—my knee hurts and they’re prescription drugs,” he said. “The fact of the matter was I was abusing them the second day I had them.”

After surgeries to repair his knee and an arm he also injured, prescriptions brought him a steady supply of pain pills. He would down about 40 every day while drinking heavily. By that time, he had become executive director of the trust fund and several associated businesses, an organization known as the PIPE Group, which employs more than 200 people across the country. It was a stressful job probably better done by two people, said Sid Stolper, Mr. Massey’s boss for 21 years.

After Mr. Massey got, in his own words, “blasted” at work on pills and alcohol, Mr. Stolper called a meeting and delivered an ultimatum: Get clean or you’re fired.

“He is a very valued employee and does a lot for the organization,” said Mr. Stolper. “He was worth the effort of saving.”

At first, Mr. Massey resisted. But after detoxing for two weeks at home, he entered a two-week recovery program in San Diego. The center’s president, Tom Horvath, is a seminal figure in a rehabilitation movement called SMART Recovery, a secular, cognitive-behavioral-therapy based alternative to the 12-step approach. Mr. Massey now leads an online SMART Recovery group, and he is back at his job.

Talking about his generation, Mr. Massey said: “What I suspect is, we know how to get high; we know the sensation. In a broad sense, once you’ve been there, it’s easier to get back into it.”
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BornAgain2



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PostPosted: Thu Jun 18, 2015 12:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Drug overdose death rates increase in 26 states
6/17/15

Drug overdose death rates have increased in 26 states and Washington, D.C., and overdoses continue to outpace car crashes as the leading cause of injury-related deaths, according to a new report.

Nearly 44,000 people die from drug overdoses each year, a figure that more than doubled from 1999 to 2013, and more than half of them stem from prescription pills.

The report from Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which was released Wednesday, ranks states on their actions to curb the most common causes of injury-related deaths — drug abuse, motor vehicle deaths, homicides, suicides, falls and traumatic brain injuries.

"Over 10 years, the opioid prescriptions have quadrupled, but there's not a change in the overall pain that Americans had in that same period," said Amber Williams, executive director of Safe States Alliance, an organization of experts who work on injury and violence prevention nationwide. "There's definitely a mismatch between the prescriptions and the health issues because the issues have remained the same."

Williams said these drugs, which in the past were used primarily for chronic pain or cancer treatment, are now being used for more treatments, leading to an increase in the prescription of opioids.

West Virginia, Kentucky and Nevada had the highest number of drug overdose-related deaths, according to the report. North Dakota saw the lowest rate: Only 2.6 per 100,000 people died from drug overdoses in a year. Overdose death rates have decreased in six states — Washington, North Dakota, Maine, Florida, Arkansas and Alabama.

In March, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released guidelines to address opioid-drug related overdose, death and dependence. The three-part strategy calls for more training and educational resources for health professionals making prescribing decisions, an increase in the use of naloxone, a drug that can prevent an overdose when taken correctly, and expanding access to medication assistance treatment.

The number of states that have "rescue drug" laws that allow prescription access to naloxone have doubled since 2013. Now 34 states and Washington, D.C., have laws that allow access to the drug and the FDA is meeting to discuss how public health groups may be able to expand use of the drug to reduce the risk of overdose.

The Centers for Disease Control is in the process of reviewing applications from states for new funding to help bolster states' efforts to prevent prescription drug abuse, said Deb Houry, director of the CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. The CDC will award 15 to 16 states $750,000 to $1 million each year for four years.

Houry said states will have to use the money to enhance their prescription drug monitoring programs and implement community or insurer/health system interventions to prevent prescription drug overdose and abuse.

Education for physicians about "overprescribing medication" and the dangers of prescribing opioids is just as important as educating consumers or those at risk of developing addiction, said Robert Lubran, a division director at the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

"SAMHSA's surveys of households show that people tend to share these medications, and they usually get them from one physician," Lubran said.

It's easy to assume people dying from drug overdoses are hard drug users, but that's not always the case, said Howard Josepher, a social worker and president and CEO of Exponents, a New York City-based drug treatment facility. He said a common issue his organization runs into is that people don't realize the danger of mixing alcohol and drugs.

"Overdose isn't just from heroin or opioids. Many times people are drinking or taking other kinds of drugs, and it isn't an overdose as much as a drug poisoning issue," he said.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/new...ry-report-drug-overdose/28873891/
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BornAgain2



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PostPosted: Sat Jun 20, 2015 5:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Romans 6:13  Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God.
Rom 6:14  For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.


http://www.wnd.com/2015/06/big-list-of-drug-induced-killers/
BIG LIST OF DRUG-INDUCED KILLERS
Charleston church shooter may be just the latest

6/20/15

As WND has reported, Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof was a known drug user who was caught with the powerful mind-altering narcotic Suboxone when apprehended by police during an incident on Feb. 28.

Suboxone is used to treat addiction to opioid drugs such as heroin. It’s adverse effects include anxiety, irritability, depersonalization, confusion, suicidal thoughts and irrational, sometimes violent behavior.

Other drugs linked to mass killers have more often been geared toward treating mental illness. According to a data set of U.S. mass shootings from 1982-2012 prepared by Mother Jones magazine, of 62 mass shootings carried out by 64 shooters, the majority of the shooters (41) were noted to have signs of possible mental illness — the precise kinds of mental illnesses that psychotropic medications are prescribed for.

It is a well-documented fact that in the 1980s, a shift occurred in the direction of treating the mentally ill. Rather than institutionalize them, the preferred method was to “mainstream” them, encouraging them to function in society while being treated with a mind-numbing array of new anti-depressants being developed by the pharmaceutical industry.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 22, 2015 6:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pharmaceutical Sorcerers: Who are the Real Drug Dealers?
6/21/15
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=etBQ0llWfhw

Psychotropic Suicide: Pharmaceutical Euthanasia
6/21/15
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9iAjEI6JFI
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BornAgain2



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PostPosted: Sun Aug 16, 2015 11:19 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

YOU'RE CRAZY! - Mental Health; An End Times Attack Against Christians
8/16/15
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ye3_Q7YC79A
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 10, 2015 10:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

https://www.yahoo.com/parenting/a...t-in-united-states-144844063.html
ADHD Diagnoses Soar 43 Percent in United States
12/9/15

Miami (AFP) - The prevalence of ADHD diagnoses soared 43 percent in the United States in the first decade of the century, with more than one in 10 youths now diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, researchers said Tuesday.

ADHD is the most commonly identified mental disorder in the United States, often treated with psychological therapy and prescription stimulants like Ritalin to improve behavior and focus.

Its precise causes are unknown, though some research has pointed to difficulties during pregnancy, exposure to toxins and family history as playing a role.

The findings in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry show that 12 percent of American children and teens had ADHD in 2011, a significant rise over the 8.4 percent reported by parents in the same survey taken in 2003.

When researchers looked specifically at teenagers, they found the diagnoses had risen 52 percent since 2003.

“This analysis suggests that 5.8 million US children ages five to 17 now have this diagnosis, which can cause inattention and behavioral difficulties,” said lead researcher Sean Cleary, an associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University.

While ADHD has traditionally been more common among boys than girls, researchers found that parent-reported prevalence for girls diagnosed with ADHD rose 55 percent in eight years – from 4.3 percent in 2003 to 7.3 percent in 2011.

Among boys, it rose 40 percent.

The data for the study came from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau and the National Center for Health Statistics, a part of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- ‘Sharp jumps’ -

“We found rising rates of ADHD overall and very sharp jumps in certain subgroups,” Cleary said.

Hispanics in particular reported an 83 percent rise in ADHD diagnosis during the eight-year study period.

The rate of ADHD rose 107 percent among non-English speakers, and 71 percent among children with parents in so-called “other” parent marital situations – such as living with a single father, legal guardian, or grandparent, the study found.

Study authors said their research was not designed to look for the underlying reasons for changes in prevalence.

However, past studies have suggested the recent rise in US prevalence of ADHD may include changes in special-education policy or increased public awareness of ADHD.

Other studies have suggested that there has been no objective rise in ADHD since the 1960s, but rather changes in definition and diagnosis that account for more cases being recognized.

According to Andrew Adesman, chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York, the latest data is “not surprising” and “supports the general impression that more children and adolescents are being diagnosed with ADHD.”

However, Adesman – who was not involved in the study – said that while the statistics are convincing, “it does not help us understand why these increases are being observed.” —Kerry Sheridan
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 15, 2015 8:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

https://www.yahoo.com/parenting/a...regnancy-linked-to-153424681.html
12/15/15
Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Linked to Autism

Women in a new study who took antidepressants during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy showed an 87 percent increased risk of having a child with an autism spectrum disorder, compared with women who did not take medications for depression while expecting.

The researchers also found that mothers who used a certain class of antidepressants, known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), had more than double the risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the study published today (Dec. 14) in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. ASD is a group of conditions that includes autism, Asperger syndrome or other pervasive developmental disorders.

The findings suggest that using antidepressants, especially SSRIs, during the second and third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of having a child with autism, said study author Anick Berard, a professor of pharmacy at the University of Montreal, who specializes in drug use during pregnancy. Some SSRIs that may be used during pregnancy include Zoloft, Prozac and Celexa.

Previous studies have shown that having depression itself may increase the risk of  autism. But the new study showed that the increase in the risk of having a child with autism that is linked to antidepressants is above and beyond the increase in risk of autism that is associated with maternal depression, Berard said. In the new study, depression in moms was associated with a 20 percent increased risk of autism, she said. [Beyond Vaccines: 5 Things that Might Really Cause Autism]

The analysis also found that women who were prescribed more than one class of antidepressants during the last six months of pregnancy were more than four times more likely to have a child with autism, compared with women who did not take antidepressants while pregnant.

Antidepressants are one of the most frequently used medications during pregnancy, with an estimated 7 to 13 percent of American women taking them while pregnant, according to one study.

Of the previous studies that have looked for a link between the development of autism in children and antidepressant use during pregnancy, some — but not all — have found that there is an association. This new study is one of the largest to show this association, according to the researchers.

“This study is the first to quantify autism risk based on the class of antidepressants used by a woman during pregnancy, and the first to find an increased risk with SSRIs mostly,” Berard told Live Science.

Depression during pregnancy

In an editorial accompanying the study that was published in the same issue of JAMA Pediatrics, Dr. Bryan King, a child psychiatrist at Seattle Children’s Hospital, wrote that the increasing prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders have led researchers to a “search for explanations, particularly among environmental factors."

And in the ongoing search for environmental contributions to the risk of ASD, gestational exposures are increasing as an area of focus, said King, who was not involved in the research.

Although the exact cause of autism is not yet known, there is probably a strong genetic factor involved, but exposure to certain factors in the environment may also play a role, she said.

Exposure to an antidepressant during in utero development is one such factor. In the new study, the researchers analyzed data collected from all 145,500 pregnancies that occurred in the Canadian province of Quebec over the 20-year period between January 1998 and December 2009, in which mothers had a full-term pregnancy and gave birth to only one baby.

The researchers followed up with the children until age 10; there were 1,054 children who were diagnosed with ASD.

Using information gathered from hospital records in Quebec, as well as a prescription drug database and a database that showed physician visits, the researchers looked at whether the women in the study had filled a prescription for antidepressants at any time during their pregnancy, or one month before conception.

The analysis found that about 4,700 infants, or 3.2 percent of babies, were exposed to antidepressants at some point during their mothers’ pregnancies. Among these babies, 46 developed autism.

But the researchers found that only a mother’s use of antidepressants during the second or third trimester was associated with a greater risk of autism in children. There was no increase in ASD risk that was linked to using these medications during early pregnancy.

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