Aspartame Renamed – AMINOSWEET
Now Marketed As A ‘Natural’ Sweetener!
Corporate Tricks Against U.S. Citizens
Alzheimers Disease is Type 3 Diabetes
August 06, 2012 Emerging research on the widespread degenerative brain disease known as Alzheimers suggests that this prevalent form of dementia is actually a type of diabetes.
Published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, a recent study out of Rhode Island Hospital (RIH) confirms that Alzheimer's is
marked by brain insulin resistance and corresponding inflammation, a condition that some researchers are now referring to as type-3 diabetes.
Dr. Suzanne de la Monte from RIH is the one responsible for making this fascinating connection, having found in her research that
diabetes is closely associated with several key neuronal factors implicated in dementia.
It turns out that Alzheimer's progresses as a result of the brain developing resistance to insulin, which in turn prevents proper lipid (fat) metabolism.
Over time, these lipids build up in the brain rather than properly absorb, which results in increased stress and inflammation,
as well as the symptoms commonly associated with dementia.
"This study points out that once AD (Alzheimer's Disease) is established, therapeutic efforts should target several different pathways -- not just one," says Dr. de la Monte.
"The reason is that a positive feedback loop gets going, making AD progress. We have to break the vicious cycle.
Restoring insulin responsiveness and insulin depletion will help, but we need to reduce brain stress and repair the metabolic problems that cause the brain to produce toxins."
Glucose is the main energy source in all living cells, regardless if those cells are idly growing in a petri dish in a lab,
in the leaf of your household plant, or one of the billions networked within the human body.
In animals, cell get energy by directly eating foods with sugar, or by digesting more complex starches, such as the carbohydrates found in pasta and rice,
into the simpler sugar, glucose, which is then easily absorbed into the bloodstream.
But how the body handles those sugars – and how many sugars you bombard yourself with – can have wide ranging implications.
The process is more complicated than you might think, as shown in the figure below.
So let’s take a closer look at exactly how glucose gets into cells – and how that could eventually lead to alzheimers.
When the body refuses to make insulin, the condition is called type 1 diabetes;
when the body mismanages the hormone, it's known as type 2.
Now, scientists report new evidence linking insulin to a disorder of the brain: when the brain prevents the hormone from acting properly, the ensuing chemical imbalance may help trigger Alzheimer's disease. The correlation is so strong that some researchers are calling Alzheimer's disease "type 3" diabetes.
In the body, insulin helps convert food into cellular energy. But the brain has other uses for insulin, namely as a means to learn and make new memories.
Here's how it works: At synapses, the spaces across which brain cells communicate and where memories are conceived, neurons reserve special parking spots just for insulin. When the hormone pulls in, a connection is made that enables new memories to form.
Since new memory formation is one of the first things to go awry in people with early stages of the disease,
this insulin-initiated process may hold the key to decoding the mystery of Alzheimer's.
In August, a team of scientists at Northwestern University were the first to show why the brain's "memory function" fails in the face of an insulin shortage.
The group's prior research had already pinpointed the culprit: toxic proteins called amyloid beta-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs, for short),
which are known to pile up in the brains of people with Alzheimer's. Scientists also knew that Alzheimer's patients' brains have lower levels of insulin and are insulin resistant.
But what the Northwestern team discovered is the molecular mechanism behind that resistance:
when ADDLs bind to neurons at synapses, they obliterate the receptors that are normally reserved for insulin.
Without those parking spaces on the brain cells' surface, insulin has no place to connect, and memory fails.
Aspartame, NutraSweet, Equal dangerous
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Scandal of the deadly diabetes drug
French politicians of both the right and left are facing severe embarrassment and legal recriminations with the forthcoming publication of an official report on what could become the worst health scandal in the country's history.
France President Nicolas Sarkozy promised "the most complete transparency" on how a drug which is now suspected to have killed up to 2,000 people was officially approved, and subsidised, for 33 years by the French health service.
Despite repeated warnings from scientists in France and abroad, the Mediator drug was prescribed to 5,000,000 French people, originally to fight diabetes and later as an appetite-suppressing, slimming pill. A report from the French health inspectorate, due in mid-January, will investigate why successive French health ministers, of the left and right, failed to heed advice that the drug – produced by the French pharmaceutical giant, Servier – was at best useless, and at worst highly dangerous.
Separate French press investigations have focused on an alleged campaign of intimidation and disinformation by the Servier company to keep the drug – and a lucrative predecessor, eventually banned in the US in 1997 – on the market.
Servier, the second largest French drugs company, founded 50 years ago by Jacques Servier, 88, a French doctor, is known for its cult of secrecy and its excellent relations with French politicians. President Sarkozy himself once worked for the company as a lawyer during his brief legal career, when he was a young man.
Mediator contains a substance called benfluorex, which has been alleged in a series of scientific investigations to attack the cardio-vascular system and, in particular, to damage the valves of the heart. Despite a series of warnings, the drug remained legal – and its use was even officially subsidised by the French health service – until late last year.
Approval was finally withdrawn after the publication of a study in April 2009 by a Breton lung specialist, Irčne Frachon, which linked Mediator to scores of patients with otherwise unexplained heart valve problems. In November this year, the agency which runs the finances of the French health service calculated that the drug was responsible for at least 500 premature deaths. Another study, leaked to the newspaper Le Figaro, put the death toll at between 1,000 and 2,000.
The French Health Minister, Xavier Bertrand, has promised that the investigation will examine why a string of his predecessors failed to respond to warnings that Mediator was potentially dangerous. His predecessors include himself. In a previous stint in the job, in 2006, he decided to maintain the 65 per cent refund to patients who bought Mediator, despite an official report linking it to heart valve disease.
Cure for Diabetes?
What Big Pharma doesn't want you to know!
Type 2 diabetes breakthrough: Imbalance in gut bacteria likely cause
We've all heard the news about the enormous, world-wide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Not only is this form of diabetes (which results from the body's inability to effectively use insulin) soaring among adults, it is now hitting children and teens as well. The World Health Organization (WHO) says the cause is primarily excess body weight and weight physical inactivity.
But breakthrough research just published in the journal Nature strongly indicates another, bottom line cause has been discovered - an imbalance of "good" versus "bad" bacteria in the intestinal tract appears to trigger type 2 diabetes.
Sound familiar? Natural health advocates have long insisted that a healthy digestive tract is crucial to preventing and treating diseases and that making sure there's a healthy balance between the "good" bacteria and the disease-promoting kind is key. In recent years, this concept has been backed up by numerous studies linking the overuse of antibiotics, which wipe out the "good" germs in the gut, to serious ills. Researchers have also found that promoting a healthy internal flora rich in the "good" kind of bacteria is beneficial in a myriad of ways - including boosting the immune system to fight flu and treating Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. And research recently published by Austrian scientists in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests an unhealthy balance of gut flora could cause obesity and metabolic syndrome which have long been linked to type 2 diabetes.
"We have demonstrated that people with type 2 diabetes have a high level of pathogens in their intestines," lead researcher for the Nature study, Jun Wang from the University of Copenhagen's Department of Biology and Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, said in a media statement.
Just ONE Soda a Day Can Raise Your Diabetes Risk by 25 Percent!
A recent meta-analysis concluded that drinking just ONE soda -- or other sweetened drink, including Vitamin Water -- per day can raise your risk of developing diabetes by 25 percent, compared to drinking just one sugary drink per month.
According to U.S. News & World Report:
"Previous studies have shown that sugar-sweetened beverages are strongly associated with weight gain…
They identified eight studies with enough data to let them check for a link between sugary drinks and type 2 diabetes and three similar studies of metabolic syndrome.
The largest diabetes study, which followed more than 91,000 American women ages 24 to 44 for eight years, made the strongest case for a relationship, and it wasn't just because higher consumption of sweetened drinks added excess calories that turned into pounds.
While weight gain is a known diabetes risk factor, the diabetes-beverage link persisted even after adjusting for that."
Considering the fact that the number one source of calories consumed in the US is in the form of soda, it's not hard to see the correlation between inappropriate dietary choices and the meteoric rise of diabetes.
Fructose-rich sodas, orange juice boost gout risk in women too
David Liu - Drinking fructose rich beverages such as high-fructose-corn-syrup-based sodas and orange juice may boost risk of gout in women, a study scheduled to appear in the Nov 24, 2010 issue of Journal of American Medical Association suggests.
The study led by Hyon K. Choi, M.D., Dr.P.H., of the Boston University School of Medicine, and colleagues found an association between fructose consumption and increased risk of gout in women.
The findings were also presented at the American College of Rheumatology annual scientific meeting.
Gout, which has something to do with uric acid, is a common and very painful inflammatory arthritis and fructose-rich beverages like sugar-sweetened sodas and orange juice are known to increase uric acid levels in the blood, which suggests that using fructose beverages may increase gout risk, according to the background information in the study report.
For the study, the researchers analysed data from 78,906 women without gout at baseline, who participated in the Nurses' Health Study and provided information on intake of beverages and fructose via validated food frequency questionnaires.
During a 22-year follow-up, 778 cases of gout were identified.
Women who used one serving of a fructose-rich beverage per day were 41 percent more likely to develop gout and those who had 2 or more servings a day were 2.4 times more likely to have the disease, compared with those who used less than one serving per day.
Diet soft drinks were not correlated with the risk of gout.
Orange juice was also linked with risk of gout.
Specifically, compared to drinking one glass or 6 oz. of O.J. per month, women who had one serving per day were 41 percent more likely to develop gout and those who used two or more servings per day were 2.4 times more likely to develop gout.
Those in the highest quintile of fructose intake were 62 percent more likely to develop gout compared to those who were in the quintile of lowest intake.
This is not the first study to suggest that drinking fructose-laced sodas may boost risk of gout.
Gao X. and colleagues from Harvard University School of Public Health in Boston published a report in 2007 in Hypertension saying drinking sugar-sweetened beverages increased serum uric acid in men, but not in women.
Fructose can be found in cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup, both are commonly used in soft drinks, and the sugar has bee associated with elevated levels of serum uric acid.
For the study, the researchers analysed data from 1988 men and 2085 women aged 18 or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002. Dietary intake of fructose was assessed by a single 24-hour recall.
They found high uric acid in men but not women who had high intake of fructose.
Another study led by Choi J.W. and colleagues from Arthritis Research Centre of Canada and published in 2008 in Arthritis and Rheumatism showed drinking sugar-sweetened beverages increased serum uric acid levels.
The study involved 14,761 participants aged 20 or older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1988 and 1994.
The researchers found high serum uric acid was linked with high sugar-sweetened soft drink intake.
High levels of serum uric acid are linked to high risk of gout.
Is type 2 diabetes caused by BACTERIA in the gut? Toxins trigger insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels, study finds
Link between prolonged exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and condition
S.aureus causes common skin infections, food poisoning and MRSA
Found in high quantities in the guts of people who are obese
Toxins produced by bacteria trigger the symptoms of type 2 diabetes
Bacteria responsible for common skin infections, food poisoning and MRSA could also trigger one of the most prevalent diseases of our time - type 2 diabetes.
Researchers in the US discovered exposure to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria causes hallmark symptoms of the disease in rabbits.
They hope their findings will help pave the way for new anti-bacterial therapies or vaccines to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes.
In 2012, an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes, according to the World Health Organisation.
Type 2 diabetes comprises 90 per cent of all people with diabetes, the WHO adds.
Scientists at the University of Iowa found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by the S.aureus bacteria causes rabbits to develop insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation.
Professor Patrick Schlievert, who led the study, said: 'We basically reproduced type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen.
The findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria might prove a potential treatment for the condition.
Obesity is a known risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.
But being obese can also alter a person's microbiome - the ecosystem of bacteria that colonise a person's gut, and affect their health.
Professor Schlievert said: 'What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonised by staph bacteria - to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin.
'People who are colonised by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.'
Professor Schlievert's past research has shown that superantigens - the toxins produced by all strains of staph bacteria - disrupt the immune system.
The are also responsible for the deadly effects of various staph infections, such as toxic shock syndrome, sepsis and endocarditis.
His team's latest study shows the toxins interact with fat cells and the immune system to cause chronic systemic inflammation.
It is this inflammation, the researchers said, that results in insulin resistance and other symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Researchers examined the levels of staph colonisation on the skin of four patients with diabetes.
They estimate that exposure to the bacterial superantigens for people who are heavily colonised by staph is proportional to the doses of superantigen that caused the rabbits to develop symptoms of diabetes.
Professor Schlievert, said: 'I think we have a way to intercede here and alter the course of diabetes.
'We are working on a vaccine against the superantigens, and we believe that this type of vaccine could prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.'
The team is also investigating the use of a topical gel containing glycerol monolaurate, which kills staph bacteria on contact, as an approach to eliminate the bacteria from human skin.
They plan to test whether this approach will improve blood sugar levels in patients with prediabetes.
The study was published in the journal mBio.
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