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CJ

Archaeology, artifacts, Ark, Mt Sinai




Ark of the Covenant
Is the witness of Ron Wyatt valid?  Quoted scriptures appear to validate his testimony.
Was the Ark moved from there to temple mount tunnel?
The Holy of Holies is under the Satanic Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount Israel.
The ark said to be in Ethiopia is a replica, not the true Ark.


Ron Wyatt
Ron Wyatt says the Ark is in a cave North of Jerusalem under Golgotha where the crosses stood.  Wyatt found it and encountered angels in the cave.
Did the blood of Christ fall from the cross down thru the rock onto the Mercy Seat of the Ark in a cave under the cross?
The blood was tested and found to be - ALIVE.  It had ONLY the female chromasomes plus ONE Y Male one.  GOD.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-87sjeFzrzs


Where is the Ark of the Covenant?
The true Ark was hidden in a cave beneath the Temple Mount in the very heart of Israel.
The priests hid the Ark beneath the Temple Mount, perhaps during the time of King Josiah,
since the coming prophesied invasion by the Babylonians was only a matter of time.
By hiding the Ark, the priests felt it could be protected from desecration by the pagan invaders.

The Ark of the Covenant disappeared. Nothing in the Bible is said about the Ark in the Old Testament after the return from Babylon,
but the Apocrypha states that the Ark could not be found when the Jewish people rebuilt the Temple at the time of Ezra and Zechariah.
The explanation in the Apocrypha was that Jeremiah hid the Ark in a cave in Mt. Nebo before the Babylonian invasion,
and that its location would not be revealed until God was ready for it to be found.

No Ark in the Second Temple
The Holy of Holies in the Second Temple was an empty chamber, without the Ark of the Covenant.

Babylonians invaded Jerusalem
They destroyed the Temple.  No mention is made in the Scriptures of the Babylonians taking the Ark.

The Rabbinical Attempt to Find the Ark
Rabbi Shlomo Goren and Rabbi Yehuda Getz, the rabbis in charge of the Western Wall area, are convinced that the Ark has been hidden in a cave in the Temple Mount directly under the site of the Holy of Holies
, since the time of King Josiah. The ancient priests would have been careful to locate the cave repository for the Ark in the sanctified area below the Holy of Holies.  Orthodox Jews believe that the Ark is in this cave below the Holy of Holies, under the Satanic Dome of the Rock, and awaits the right time to be found.
http://www.levitt.com/essays/ark.html


The Bible is silent about what happened to the Ark before or after the destruction of the Temple in 586 B.C.
An apocryphal book written during the century prior to Jesus’ birth records an interesting idea about the fate of the Ark. 2 Maccabees 2:4-7 reads:
“It was also in the writing that the prophet [Jeremiah], in obedience to a revelation, gave orders that the tent and the ark should accompany him, and that he went up and beheld God’s inheritance. And Jeremiah came and found a cave-dwelling, and he took the tent and the ark and the incense altar into it, and he blocked up the door. And some of those who followed him came up to mark the road, and they could not find it. But when Jeremiah found it out, he blamed them and said,
“The place shall be unknown until God gathers the congregation of his people together and shows his mercy.”
From - http://www.bibleprophecyblog.com
http://www.whyisrael.org/2012/08/23/where-is-the-ark-of-the-covenant

Ark of the Covenant is in ISRAEL
This video says the Ark was hidden under the original Holy of Holies on Temple Mount.
http://www.israelvideonetwork.com...-the-covenant-lost-or-hidden-away

What is the Ark of the Covenant?
It was a symbol of Gods presence for the children of Israel in Exodus chapter 25
https://www.christiancenter.com/en/ark-of-the-covenant.html


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ZionsCRY NEWS with prophetic analysis
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CJ




Mount Sinai is in Saudi Arabia
The real mount Mt Sinai FOUND in Saudi Arabia

Mt Sinai - the cave of Elijah is there, everything there matches scripture perfectly

The REAL Biblical Mt.Sinai FOUND. Secrets can't be kept forever. Another TREASURE found. Another heavenily,Godly treasure discovered thanks to Two men who made history by their curiousity.. After looking at this video you will understand and see this one is the good mountain of the GOD.. It is a good one because it was wire fenced!!! They have put a wire fence around the ara! And WHY?! Why this area was fenced? Why? And who did it or under who's order? Could it be they have been trying to hide all evidence linked to GOD and the historical events fortold in books!


Ron Wyatt Archaeology - The Exodus
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmU_TyITtoc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU25s2xrxfc
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=0b4_1375646452&comments=1

After finding chariot parts in the Gulf of Aquaba, Ron Wyatt wondered if Mount Sinai could be in Saudi Arabia. In Galatians 4:25 the Bible states that Mount Sinai is in Arabia, "For this Agar is Mount Sinai in ARABIA." The Bible says Mount Sinai is in Midian, and this area has always been known as Midian. Still to this day it is called, "Madyan". After being denied a visa Ron entered the country without one on foot. He made his way to 'Jebel el Lawz', known by the locals as "Jebel Musa" (Moses' mountain) which his research showed could have fitted the biblical description of Mount Sinai.

Another remarkable find was discovered in the area. A massive split boulder, sixty foot high, forty foot wide, forty foot wide and twenty foot deep, sitting on top of a rocky hill. Is there an account in the Bible that talks of such a rock? "Behold I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink." Exodus 17:6.. Moses had led the people accross the desert to Mount Sinai,and they were now complaining because they had no water. It was for this reason that God commanded Moses to strike this rock, that God could manifest His power to perform miracles, and cause water to flow from this rock.
http://www.wyattmuseum.com
CJ




Noahs Ark
Explorers from China and Turkey believe they may have found the remnants of Noahs Ark.
Yeung Wing-cheung, a Hong Kong documentary filmmaker and a 15-person team from Noahs Ark Ministries.
The team says it recovered wooden specimens from a structure on Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey 4,800 years old.
Several compartments, some with wooden beams, are inside.

The structure is partitioned into different spaces.
Ahmet Ertugrul was leader of the search team.
Many claims have been flooding in over the past few years regarding possible discoveries of the ark.

In June 2006, a 14-man crew that included Josh McDowell found evidence of the arks remains.
The anomaly remains ensconced in glacial ice at an altitude of 15,300 feet, and photos suggest its length-to-width ratio is close to 6:1, as indicated in the Book of Genesis.

The mountains of Ararat
Some 15 miles from Mount Ararat is perhaps the most well-known candidate vying for the title of Noahs Ark.
Many believe this is Noah’s Ark, already found on a mountain next to Mt. Ararat,
A boat-shaped object thought by many to be the fossilized remnants of the the vessel sits in Dogubayazit, Turkey, and was first photographed in 1959 by a Turkish air-force pilot on a NATO mapping mission.
It gained worldwide attention after its photo was published in a 1960 issue of Life Magazine.

The man most responsible for promoting this location as the arks actual resting place from the Bible was Ron Wyatt  ( www.wyattmuseum.com ), who died of cancer in 1999 after years of searching for biblical antiquities, who also claimed to have found the remains of Pharaohs chariots that chased Moses through the Red Sea and the true location of Mount Sinai in Arabia.

In both the Old and New Testaments, the Bible speaks of Noah and the ark, and Jesus Christ and the apostles Paul and Peter all make reference to Noahs flood as an actual historical event.

According to Genesis, Noah was a righteous man who was instructed by God to construct a large vessel to hold his family and many species of animals, as a massive deluge was coming to purify the world which had become corrupt.

Genesis 6:5 states: And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
Noah was told by God to take aboard seven pairs of each of the clean animals – that is to say, those permissible to eat – and two each of the unclean variety (Genesis 7:2).
Though the Bible says it rained for 40 days and 40 nights, it also mentions the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.

Genesis 8:4 does not say the ark rested on Mount Ararat, but rather the mountains of Ararat, and it was still months before Noah and his family – his wife, his three sons and the sons’ wives – were able to leave the ark and begin replenishing the world.
http://www.wnd.com/2010/04/146369


Question    I dont know what to think   Embarassed
CJ




Major discovery of Christian history
March, 2011
 Could lead codices prove ‘the major discovery of Christian history’?
British archaeologists are seeking to authenticate what could be a landmark discovery in the documentation of early Christianity: a trove of 70 lead codices that appear to date from the 1st century CE, which may include key clues to the last days of Jesus' life. As UK Daily Mail reporter Fiona Macrae writes, some researchers are suggesting this could be the most significant find in Christian archeology since the Dead Sea scrolls in 1947.

The codices turned up five years ago in a remote cave in eastern Jordan—a region where early Christian believers may have fled after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. The codices are made up of wirebound individual pages, each roughly the size of a credit card. They contain a number of images and textual allusions to the Messiah, as well as some possible references to the crucifixion and resurrection. Some of the codices were sealed, prompting yet more breathless speculation that they could include the sealed book, shown only to the Messiah, mentioned in the Book of Revelation. One of the few sentences translated thus far from the texts, according to the BBC, reads, "I shall walk uprightly"--a phrase that also appears in Revelation. "While it could be simply a sentiment common in Judaism," BBC writer Robert Pigott notes, "it could here be designed to refer to the resurrection."

But the field of biblical archaeology is also prey to plenty of hoaxes and enterprising fraudsters, so investigators are proceeding with due empirical caution. Initial metallurgical research indicates that the codices are about 2,000 years old--based on the manner of corrosion they have undergone, which, as Macrae writes, "experts believe would be impossible to achieve artificially."

Beyond the initial dating tests, however, little is confirmed about the codices or what they contain. And the saga of their discovery has already touched off a battle over ownership rights between Israel and Jordan. As the BBC's Pigott recounts, the cache surfaced when a Jordanian Bedouin saw a menorah—the Jewish religious candleabra—exposed in the wake of a flash flood. But the codices somehow passed into the ownership of an Israeli Bedouin named Hassam Saeda, who claims that they have been in his family's possession for the past 100 years. The Jordanian government has pledged to "exert all efforts at every level" to get the potentially priceless relics returned, Pigott reports.

Meanwhile, biblical scholars who have examined the codices point to significant textual evidence suggesting their early Christian origin. Philip Davies, emeritus professor of Old Testament Studies at Sheffield University, told Pigott he was "dumbstruck" at the sight of plates representing a picture map of ancient Jerusalem. "There is a cross in the foreground, and behind it is what has to be the tomb [of Jesus], a small building with an opening, and behind that the walls of the city," Davies explained. "There are walls depicted on other pages of these books, too, and they almost certainly refer to Jerusalem."

David Elkington, an ancient religion scholar who heads the British research team investigating the find, has likewise pronounced this nothing less than "the major discovery of Christian history." Elkington told the Daily Mail that "it is a breathtaking thought that we have held these objects that might have been held by the early saints of the Church."

Still, other students of early Christian history are urging caution, citing precedents such as the debunked discovery of an ossuary said to contain Jesus' bones. New Testament scholar Larry Hurtado observes that since these codices are miniature, they were likely intended for private, rather than liturgical, use. This would likely place their date of origin closer to the 3rd century CE. But only further research and full translation of the codices can fully confirm the nature of the find. The larger lesson here is likely that of Eccliastes 3:1—be patient, since "to everything there is a season."
(David Elkington/Rex Features/Rex USA)
http://news.yahoo.com/s/yblog_the...or-discovery-of-christian-history

*  Posted by mayito7777 - I combined threads
CJ

King Herod the Great
August, 2013 Archaeology
King Herod transformed the landscape of the ancient Land of Israel.
Herod the Great was a practicing Jew and ruled over Judea for 33 years and produced massive building projects.
One was reconstruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Jerusalem Hebrew University discovered King Herods mausoleum facing Jerusalem.
He murdered his wife and two of his sons, as well as the newborn sons of Bethlehem, in an effort to kill the much-prophesied Messiah Jesus.
Video
http://www.timesofisrael.com/even...-great-the-kings-final-journey-16

Matthew 2
http://biblehub.com/nasb/matthew/2.htm

.
CJ

50 People in the Bible Confirmed Archaeologically
March, 2014
 Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible,
in the March/April 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Purdue University scholar Lawrence Mykytiuk lists 50 figures from the Hebrew Bible that have been confirmed archaeologically. The 50-person chart in BAR includes Israelite kings and Mesopotamian monarchs as well as lesser-known figures.

Mykytiuk writes that “at least 50 people mentioned in the Bible have been identified in the archaeological record. Their names appear in inscriptions written during the period described by the Bible and in most instances during or quite close to the lifetime of the person identified.” The extensive Biblical and archaeological documentation supporting the BAR study is published here in a web-exclusive collection of endnotes detailing the Biblical references and inscriptions referring to each of the 50 figures.

50 Figures: The Biblical and Archaeological Evidence

EGYPT

1. Shishak (= Shoshenq I), pharaoh, r. 945–924, 1 Kings 11:40 and 14:25, in his inscriptions, including the record of his military campaign in Palestine in his 924 B.C.E. inscription on the exterior south wall of the Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes. See OROT, pp. 10, 31–32, 502 note 1; many references to him in Third, indexed on p. 520; Kenneth A. Kitchen, review of IBP, SEE-J Hiphil 2 (2005), http://www.see-j.net/index.php/hiphil/article/viewFile/19/17, bottom of p. 3, which is briefly mentioned in “Sixteen,” p. 43 n. 22 (where the Egyptian name Shoshenq is incorrectly transcribed).
Shoshenq is also referred to in a fragment of his victory stele discovered at Megiddo containing his cartouche. See Robert S. Lamon and Geoffrey M. Shipton, Megiddo I: Seasons of 1925–34, Strata I–V. (Oriental Institute Publications no. 42; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939), pp. 60–61, fig. 70; Graham I. Davies, Megiddo (Cities of the Biblical World; Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1986), pp. 89 fig. 18, 90; OROT, p. 508 n. 68; IBP, p. 137 n. 119 (in which the Egyptian name Shoshenq is incorrectly transcribed).

2. So (= Osorkon IV), pharaoh, r. 730–715, 2 Kings 17:4 only, which calls him “So, king of Egypt” (OROT, pp. 15–16). K. A. Kitchen makes a detailed case for So being Osorkon IV in Third, pp. 372–375. See Raging Torrent, p. 106 under “Shilkanni.”  

3. Tirhakah (= Taharqa), pharaoh, r. 690–664, 2 Kings 19:9, etc. in many Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions; Third, pp. 387–395. For mention of Tirhakah in Assyrian inscriptions, see those of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal in Raging Torrent, pp. 138–143, 145, 150–153, 155, 156; ABC, p. 247 under “Terhaqah.” The Babylonian chronicle also refers to him (Raging Torrent, p. 187). On Tirhakah as prince, see OROT, p. 24.

4. Necho II (= Neco II), pharaoh, r. 610–595, 2 Chronicles 35:20, etc., in inscriptions of the Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal (ANET, pp. 294–297) and the Esarhaddon Chronicle (ANET, p. 303). See also Raging Torrent, pp. 189–199, esp. 198; OROT, p. 504 n. 26; Third, p. 407; ABC, p. 232.

5. Hophra (= Apries = Wahibre), pharaoh, r. 589–570, Jeremiah 44:30, in Egyptian inscriptions, such as the one describing his being buried by his successor, Aḥmose II (= Amasis II) (Third, p. 333 n. 498), with reflections in Babylonian inscriptions regarding Nebuchadnezzar’s defeat of Hophra in 572 and replacing him on the throne of Egypt with a general, Aḥmes (= Amasis), who later rebelled against Babylonia and was suppressed (Raging Torrent, p. 222). See OROT, pp. 9, 16, 24; Third, p. 373 n. 747, 407 and 407 n. 969; ANET, p. 308; D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings (626–556 B.C.) in the British Museum (London: The Trustees of the British Museum, 1956), pp. 94-95. Cf. ANEHST, p. 402. (The index of Third, p. 525, distinguishes between an earlier “Wahibre i” [Third, p. 98] and the 26th Dynasty’s “Wahibre ii” [= Apries], r. 589–570.)

Ten Top Biblical Archaeology Discoveries brings together the exciting worlds of archaeology and the Bible! Learn the fascinating insights gained from artifacts and ruins, like the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem, where the Gospel of John says Jesus miraculously restored the sight of the blind man, and the Tel Dan inscription—the first historical evidence of King David outside the Bible.

MOAB

6. Mesha, king, r. early to mid-9th century, 2 Kings 3:4–27, in the Mesha Inscription, which he caused to be written, lines 1–2; Dearman, Studies, pp. 97, 100–101; IBP, pp. 95–108, 238; “Sixteen,” p. 43.

ARAM-DAMASCUS

7. Hadadezer, king, r. early 9th century to 844/842, 1 Kings 22:3, etc., in Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser III and also, I am convinced, in the Melqart stele. The Hebrew Bible does not name him, referring to him only as “the King of Aram” in 1 Kings 22:3, 31; 2 Kings chapter 5, 6:8–23. We find out this king’s full name in some contemporaneous inscriptions of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria (r. 858–824), such as the Black Obelisk (Raging Torrent, pp. 22–24). At Kurkh, a monolith by Shalmaneser III states that at the battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E.), he defeated “Adad-idri [the Assyrian way of saying Hadadezer] the Damascene,” along with “Ahab the Israelite” and other kings (Raging Torrent, p. 14; RIMA 3, p. 23, A.0.102.2, col. ii, lines 89b–92). “Hadadezer the Damascene” is also mentioned in an engraving on a statue of Shalmaneser III at Aššur (RIMA 3, p. 118, A.0.102.40, col. i, line 14). The same statue engraving later mentions both Hadadezer and Hazael together (RIMA 3, p. 118, col. i, lines 25–26) in a topical arrangement of worst enemies defeated that is not necessarily chronological.
On the long-disputed readings of the Melqart stele, which was discovered in Syria in 1939, see “Corrections,” pp. 69–85, which follows the closely allied readings of Frank Moore Cross and Gotthard G. G. Reinhold. Those readings, later included in “Sixteen,” pp. 47–48, correct the earlier absence of this Hadadezer in IBP (notably on p. 237, where he is not to be confused with the tenth-century Hadadezer, son of Rehob and king of Zobah).

8. Ben-hadad, son of Hadadezer, r. or served as co-regent 844/842, 2 Kings 6:24, etc., in the Melqart stele, following the readings of Frank Moore Cross and Gotthard G. G. Reinhold and Cross’s 2003 criticisms of a different reading that now appears in COS, vol. 2, pp. 152–153 (“Corrections,” pp. 69–85).  Several kings of Damascus bore the name Bar-hadad (in their native Aramaic, which is translated as Ben-hadad in the Hebrew Bible), which suggests adoption as “son” by the patron deity Hadad. This designation might indicate that he was the crown prince and/or co-regent with his father Hadadezer. It seems likely that Bar-hadad/Ben-hadad was his father’s immediate successor as king, as seems to be implied by the military policy reversal between 2 Kings 6:3–23 and 6:24. It was this Ben-Hadad, the son of Hadadezer, whom Hazael assassinated in 2 Kings 8:7–15 (quoted in Raging Torrent, p. 25). The mistaken disqualification of this biblical identification in the Melqart stele in IBP, p. 237, is revised to a strong identification in that stele in “Corrections,” pp. 69–85; “Sixteen,” p. 47.

9. Hazael, king, r. 844/842–ca. 800, 1 Kings 19:15, 2 Kings 8:8, etc., is documented in four kinds of inscriptions: 1) The inscriptions of Shalmaneser III call him “Hazael of Damascus” (Raging Torrent, pp. 23–26, 2Cool, for example the inscription on the Kurbail Statue (RIMA 3, p. 60, line 21). He is also referred to in 2) the Zakkur stele from near Aleppo, in what is now Syria, and in 3) bridle inscriptions, i.e., two inscribed horse blinders and a horse frontlet discovered on Greek islands, and in 4) inscribed ivories seized as Assyrian war booty (Raging Torrent, p. 35). All are treated in IBP, pp. 238–239, and listed in “Sixteen,” p. 44. Cf. “Corrections,” pp. 101–103.

10. Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, king, r. early 8th century, 2 Kings 13:3, etc., in the Zakkur stele from near Aleppo. In lines 4–5, it calls him “Bar-hadad, son of Hazael, the king of Aram” (IBP, p. 240; “Sixteen,” p. 44; Raging Torrent, p. 38; ANET, p. 655: COS, vol. 2, p. 155). On the possibility of Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, being the “Mari” in Assyrian inscriptions, see Raging Torrent, pp. 35–36.

11. Rezin (= Raḥianu), king, r. mid-8th century to 732, 2 Kings 15:37, etc., in the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria (in these inscriptions, Raging Torrent records frequent mention of Rezin in  pp. 51–7Cool; OROT, p. 14. Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III refer to “Rezin” several times, “Rezin of Damascus” in Annal 13, line 10 (ITP, pp. 68–69), and “the dynasty of Rezin of Damascus” in Annal 23, line 13 (ITP, pp. 80–81). Tiglath-pileser III’s stele from Iran contains an explicit reference to Rezin as king of Damascus in column III, the right side, A: “[line 1] The kings of the land of Hatti (and of) the Aramaeans of the western seashore . . .  [line 4] Rezin of Damascus”  (ITP, pp. 106–107).

NORTHERN KINGDOM of ISRAEL

12. Omri, king, r. 884–873, 1 Kings 16:16, etc., in Assyrian inscriptions and in the Mesha Inscription. Because he founded a famous dynasty which ruled the northern kingdom of Israel, the Assyrians refer not only to him as a king of Israel (ANET, pp. 280, 281), but also to the later rulers of that territory as kings of “the house of Omri” and that territory itself literally as “the house of Omri” (Raging Torrent, pp. 34, 35; ANET, pp. 284, 285). Many a later king of Israel who was not his descendant, beginning with Jehu, was called “the son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 1Cool. The Mesha Inscription also refers to Omri as “the king of Israel” in lines 4–5, 7 (Dearman, Studies, pp. 97, 100–101; COS, vol. 2, p. 137; IBP, pp. 108–110, 216; “Sixteen,” p. 43.

13.  Ahab, king, r. 873–852, 1 Kings 16:28, etc., in the Kurkh Monolith by his enemy, Shalmaneser III of Assyria. There, referring to the battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E.), Shalmaneser calls him “Ahab the Israelite” (Raging Torrent, pp. 14, 18–19; RIMA 3, p. 23, A.0.102.2, col. 2, lines 91–92; ANET, p. 279; COS, vol. 2, p. 263).

14.  Jehu, king, r. 842/841–815/814, 1 Kings 19:16, etc., in inscriptions of Shalmaneser III. In these, “son” means nothing more than that he is the successor, in this instance, of Omri (Raging Torrent, p. 20 under “Ba’asha . . . ” and p. 26). A long version of Shalmaneser III’s annals on a stone tablet in the outer wall of the city of Aššur refers to Jehu in col. 4, line 11, as “Jehu, son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 28; RIMA 3, p. 54, A.0.102.10, col. 4, line 11; cf. ANET, p. 280, the parallel “fragment of an annalistic text”). Also, on the Kurba’il Statue, lines 29–30 refer to “Jehu, son of Omri” (RIMA 3, p. 60, A.0.102.12, lines 29–30).

In Shalmaneser III’s Black Obelisk, current scholarship regards the notation over relief B, depicting payment of tribute from Israel, as referring to “Jehu, son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 23; RIMA 3, p. 149, A.0. 102.8Cool, but cf. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., “‘Yaw, Son of ’Omri’: A Philological Note on Israelite Chronology,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 216 (1974): pp. 5–7.

15.  Joash (= Jehoash), king, r. 805–790, 2 Kings 13:9, etc., in the Tell al-Rimaḥ inscription of Adad-Nirari III, king of Assyria (r. 810–783), which mentions “the tribute of Joash [= Iu’asu] the Samarian” (Stephanie Page, “A Stela of Adad-Nirari III and Nergal-Ereš from Tell Al Rimaḥ,” Iraq 30 [1968]: pp. 142–145, line 8, Pl. 38–41; RIMA 3, p. 211, line 8 of A.0.104.7; Raging Torrent, pp. 39–41).

16. Jeroboam II, king, r. 790–750/749, 2 Kings 13:13, etc., in the seal of his royal servant Shema, discovered at Megiddo (WSS, p. 49 no. 2;  IBP, pp. 133–139, 217; “Sixteen,” p. 46).

17. Menahem, king, r. 749–738, 2 Kings 15:14, etc., in the Calah Annals of Tiglath-pileser III. Annal 13, line 10 refers to “Menahem of Samaria” in a list of kings who paid tribute (ITP, pp. 68–69, Pl. IX). Tiglath-pileser III’s stele from Iran, his only known stele, refers explicitly to Menahem as king of Samaria in column III, the right side, A: “[line 1] The kings of the land of Hatti (and of) the Aramaeans of the western seashore . . .  [line 5] Menahem of Samaria.”  (ITP, pp. 106–107). See also Raging Torrent, pp. 51, 52, 54, 55, 59; ANET, p. 283.

18. Pekah, king, r. 750(?)–732/731, 2 Kings 15:25, etc., in the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III. Among various references to “Pekah,” the most explicit concerns the replacement of Pekah in Summary Inscription 4, lines 15–17: “[line 15] . . . The land of Bit-Humria . . . . [line 17] Peqah, their king [I/they killed] and I installed Hoshea [line 18] [as king] over them” (ITP, pp. 140–141; Raging Torrent, pp. 66–67).

19. Hoshea, king, r. 732/731–722, 2 Kings 15:30, etc., in Tiglath-pileser’s Summary Inscription 4, described in preceding note 18, where Hoshea is mentioned as Pekah’s immediate successor.

20. Sanballat “I”, governor of Samaria under Persian rule, ca. mid-fifth century, Nehemiah 2:10, etc., in a letter among the papyri from the Jewish community at Elephantine in Egypt (A. E. Cowley, ed., Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1923; reprinted Osnabrück, Germany: Zeller, 1967), p. 114 English translation of line 29, and p. 118 note regarding line 29; ANET, p. 492.

Also, the reference to “[  ]ballat,” most likely Sanballat, in Wadi Daliyeh bulla WD 22 appears to refer to the biblical Sanballat as the father of a governor of Samaria who succeeded him in the first half of the fourth century. As Jan Dušek shows, it cannot be demonstrated that any Sanballat II and III existed, which is the reason for the present article’s quotation marks around the “I” in Sanballat “I”; see Jan Dušek, “Archaeology and Texts in the Persian Period: Focus on Sanballat,” in Martti Nissinen, ed., Congress Volume: Helsinki 2010 (Boston: Brill. 2012), pp. 117–132.

As the point where three of the world’s major religions converge, Israel’s history is one of the richest and most complex in the world. Sift through the archaeology and history of this ancient land in the free eBook Israel: An Archaeological Journey, and get a view of these significant Biblical sites through an archaeologist’s lens.

SOUTHERN KINGDOM of JUDAH

21.  David, king, r. ca. 1010–970, 1 Samuel 16:13, etc. in three inscriptions. Most notable is the victory stele in Aramaic known as the “house of David” inscription, discovered at Tel Dan; Avraham Biran and Joseph Naveh, “An Aramaic Stele from Tel Dan,” IEJ 43 (1993), pp. 81–98, and idem, “The Tel Dan Inscription: A New Fragment,” IEJ 45 (1995), pp. 1–18. An ancient Aramaic word pattern in line 9 designates David as the founder of the dynasty of Judah in the phrase “house of David” (2 Sam 2:11 and 5:5; Gary A. Rendsburg, “On the Writing ביתדיד [BYTDWD] in the Aramaic Inscription from Tel Dan,” IEJ 45 [1995], pp. 22–25; Raging Torrent, p. 20, under “Ba’asha . . .”; IBP, pp. 110–132, 265–77; “Sixteen,” pp. 41–43).

In the second inscription, the Mesha Inscription, the phrase “house of David” appears in Moabite in line 31 with the same meaning: that he is the founder of the dynasty. There David’s name appears with only its first letter destroyed, and no other letter in that spot makes sense without creating a very strained, awkward reading (André Lemaire, “‘House of David’ Restored in Moabite Inscription,” BAR 20, no. 3 [May/June 1994]: pp. 30–37. David’s name also appears in line 12 of the Mesha Inscription (Anson F. Rainey, “Mesha‘ and Syntax,” in J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham, eds., The Land That I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honor of J. Maxwell Miller. (JSOT Supplement series, no. 343; Sheffield, England:Sheffield Academic, 2001), pp. 287–307; IBP, pp. 265–277; “Sixteen,” pp. 41–43).

The third inscription, in Egyptian, mentions a region in the Negev called “the heights of David” after King David (Kenneth A. Kitchen, “A Possible Mention of David in the Late Tenth Century B.C.E., and Deity *Dod as Dead as the Dodo?” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 76 [1997], pp. 39–41; IBP, p. 214 note 3, which is revised in “Corrections,” pp. 119–121; “Sixteen,” p. 43).

In the table on p. 46 of BAR, David is listed as king of Judah. According to 2 Samuel 5:5, for his first seven years and six months as a monarch, he ruled only the southern kingdom of Judah. We have no inscription that refers to David as king over all Israel (that is, the united kingdom) as also stated in 2 Sam 5:5.

22.  Uzziah (= Azariah), king, r. 788/787–736/735, 2 Kings 14:21, etc., in the inscribed stone seals of two of his royal servants: Abiyaw and Shubnayaw (more commonly called Shebanyaw); WSS, p. 51 no. 4 and p. 50 no. 3, respectively; IBP, pp. 153–159 and 159–163, respectively, and p. 219 no. 20 (a correction to IBP is that on p. 219, references to WSS nos. 3 and 4 are reversed); “Sixteen,” pp. 46–47. Cf. also his secondary burial inscription from the Second Temple era (IBP, p. 219 n. 22).

23. Ahaz (= Jehoahaz), king, r. 742/741–726, 2 Kings 15:38, etc., in Tiglath-pileser III’s Summary Inscription 7, reverse, line 11, refers to “Jehoahaz of Judah” in a list of kings who paid tribute (ITP, pp. 170–171; Raging Torrent, pp. 58–59). The Bible refers to him by the shortened form of his full name, Ahaz, rather than by the full form of his name, Jehoahaz, which the Assyrian inscription uses.
Cf. the unprovenanced seal of ’Ushna’, more commonly called ’Ashna’, the name Ahaz appears (IBP, pp. 163–169, with corrections from Kitchen’s review of IBP as noted in “Corrections,” p. 117; “Sixteen,” pp. 38–39 n. 11). Because this king already stands clearly documented in an Assyrian inscription, documentation in another inscription is not necessary to confirm the existence of the biblical Ahaz, king of Judah.

24. Hezekiah, king, r. 726–697/696, 2 Kings 16:20, etc., initially in the Rassam Cylinder of Sennacherib (in this inscription, Raging Torrent records frequent mention of Hezekiah in pp. 111–123; COS, pp. 302–303). It mentions “Hezekiah the Judahite” (col. 2 line 76 and col. 3 line 1 in Luckenbill, Annals of Sennacherib, pp. 31, 32) and “Jerusalem, his royal city” (ibid., col. 3 lines 28, 40; ibid., p. 33) Other, later copies of the annals of Sennacherib, such as the Oriental Institute prism and the Taylor prism, mostly repeat the content of the Rassam cylinder, duplicating its way of referring to Hezekiah and Jerusalem (ANET, pp. 287, 288). The Bull Inscription from the palace at Nineveh (ANET, p. 288; Raging Torrent, pp. 126–127) also mentions “Hezekiah the Judahite” (lines 23, 27 in Luckenbill, Annals of Sennacherib, pp. 69, 70) and “Jerusalem, his royal city” (line 29; ibid., p. 33).

25. Manasseh, king, r. 697/696–642/641, 2 Kings 20:21, etc., in the inscriptions of Assyrian kings Esarhaddon (Raging Torrent, pp. 131, 133, 136) and Ashurbanipal (ibid., p. 154). “Manasseh, king of Judah,” according to Esarhaddon (r. 680–669), was among those who paid tribute to him (Esarhaddon’s Prism B, column 5, line 55; R. Campbell Thompson, The Prisms of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal [London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1931], p. 25; ANET, p. 291). Also, Ashurbanipal (r. 668–627) records that “Manasseh, king of Judah” paid tribute to him (Ashurbanipal’s Cylinder C, col. 1, line 25; Maximilian Streck, Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Könige bis zum Untergang Niniveh’s, [Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 7; Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1916], vol. 2, pp. 138–139; ANET, p. 294.

26. Hilkiah, high priest during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 2 Kings 22:4, etc., in the City of David bulla of Azariah, son of Hilkiah (WSS, p. 224 no. 596; IBP, pp. 148–151; 229 only in [50] City of David bulla; “Sixteen,” p. 49).

The oldest part of Jerusalem, called the City of David, is the location where the Bible places all four men named in the bullae covered in the present endnotes 26 through 29.

Analysis of the clay of these bullae shows that they were produced in the locale of Jerusalem (Eran Arie, Yuval Goren, and Inbal Samet, “Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae,” in The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin [ed. Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman; Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2011], p. 10, quoted in “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34).

27. Shaphan, scribe during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 2 Kings 22:3, etc., in the City of David bulla of Gemariah, son of Shaphan (WSS, p. 190 no. 470; IBP, pp. 139–146, 228). See endnote 26 above regarding “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34.

28. Azariah, high priest during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 1 Chronicles 5:39, etc., in the City of David bulla of Azariah, son of Hilkiah (WSS, p. 224 no. 596; IBP, pp. 151–152; 229). See endnote 26 above regarding “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34.

29. Gemariah, official during Jehoiakim’s reign, within 609–598, Jeremiah 36:10, etc., in in the City of David bulla of Gemariah, son of Shaphan (WSS, p. 190 no. 470; IBP, pp. 147, 232). See endnote 26 above regarding “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34.

30. Jehoiachin (= Jeconiah = Coniah), king, r. 598–597, 2 Kings 24:5, etc., in four Babylonian administrative tablets regarding oil rations or deliveries, during his exile in Babylonia (Raging Torrent, p. 209; ANEHST, pp. 386–387). Discovered at Babylon, they are dated from the tenth to the thirty-fifth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylonia and conqueror of Jerusalem. One tablet calls Jehoiachin “king” (Text Babylon 28122, obverse, line 29; ANET, p. 308). A second, fragmentary text mentions him as king in an immediate context that refers to “[. . . so]ns of the king of Judah” and “Judahites” (Text Babylon 28178, obverse, col. 2, lines 38–40; ANET, p. 308). The third tablet calls him “the son of the king of Judah” and refers to “the five sons of the king of Judah” (Text Babylon 28186, reverse, col. 2, lines 17–18; ANET, p. 308). The fourth text, the most fragmentary of all, confirms “Judah” and part of Jehoiachin’s name, but contributes no data that is not found in the other texts.

31. Shelemiah, father of Jehucal the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1
and
32. Jehucal (= Jucal), official during Zedekiah’s reign, fl. within 597–586, Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1 only, both referred to in a bulla discovered in the City of David in 2005 (Eilat Mazar, “Did I Find King David’s Palace?” BAR 32, no. 1 [January/February 2006], pp. 16–27, 70; idem, Preliminary Report on the City of David Excavations 2005 at the Visitors Center Area [Jerusalem and New York: Shalem, 2007], pp. 67–69; idem, “The Wall that Nehemiah Built,” BAR 35, no. 2 [March/April 2009], pp. 24–33,66; idem, The Palace of King David: Excavations at the Summit of the City of David: Preliminary Report of Seasons 2005-2007 [Jerusalem/New York: Shoham AcademicResearch and Publication, 2009], pp. 66–71). Only the possibility of firm identifications is left open in “Corrections,” pp. 85–92; “Sixteen,” pp. 50–51; this article is my first affirmation of four identifications, both here in notes 31 and 32 and below in notes 33 and 34.

After cautiously observing publications and withholding judgment for several years, I am now affirming the four identifications in notes 31 through 34, because I am now convinced that this bulla is a remnant from an administrative center in the City of David, a possibility suggested in “Corrections,” p. 100 second-to-last paragraph, and “Sixteen,” p. 51. For me, the tipping point came by comparing the description and pictures of the nearby and immediate archaeological context in Eilat Mazar, “Palace of King David,” pp. 66–70,  with the administrative contexts described in Eran Arie, Yuval Goren, and Inbal Samet, “Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae,” in Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman, eds., The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2011), pp. 12–13 (the section titled “The Database: Judahite Bullae from Controlled Excavations”) and pp. 23–24. See also Nadav Na’aman, “The Interchange between Bible and Archaeology: The Case of David’s Palace and the Millo,” BAR 40, no. 1 (January/February 2014), pp. 57–61, 68–69, which is drawn from idem, “Biblical and Historical Jerusalem in the Tenth and Fifth-Fourth Centuries B.C.E.,” Biblica 93 (2012): pp. 21–42. See also idem, “Five Notes on Jerusalem in the First and Second Temple Periods,” Tel Aviv 39 (2012): p. 93.

33. Pashhur, father of Gedaliah the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah 38:1
and
34. Gedaliah, official during Zedekiah’s reign, fl. within 597–586, Jeremiah 38:1 only, both referred to in a bulla discovered in the City of David in 2008. See “Corrections,” pp. 92–96; “Sixteen,” pp. 50–51; and the preceding endnote 31 and 32 for bibliographic details on E. Mazar, “Wall,” pp. 24–33, 66; idem, Palace of King David, pp. 68–71) and for the comments in the paragraph that begins, “After cautiously . . . .”

ASSYRIA

35. Tiglath-pileser III (= Pul), king, r. 744–727, 2 Kings 15:19, etc., in his many inscriptions. See Raging Torrent, pp. 46–79; COS, vol. 2, pp. 284–292; ITP; Mikko Lukko, The Correspondence of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon II from Calah/Nimrud (State Archives of Assyria, no. 19; Assyrian Text Corpus Project; Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2013); ABC, pp. 248–249. On Pul as referring to Tiglath-pileser III, which is implicit in ABC, p. 333 under “Pulu,” see ITP, p. 280 n. 5 for discussion and bibliography.

On the identification of Tiglath-pileser III in the Aramaic monumental inscription honoring Panamu II, in Aramaic monumental inscriptions 1 and 8 of Bar-Rekub (now in Istanbul and Berlin, respectively), and in the Ashur Ostracon, see IBP, p. 240; COS, pp. 158–161.

36. Shalmaneser V (= Ululaya), king, r. 726–722, 2 Kings 17:2, etc., in chronicles, in king-lists, and in rare remaining inscriptions of his own (ABC, p. 242; COS, vol. 2, p. 325). Most notable is the Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series, Chronicle 1, i, lines 24–32.  In those lines, year 2 of the Chronicle mentions his plundering the city of Samaria (Raging Torrent, pp. 178, 182; ANEHST, p. 408). (“Shalman” in Hosea 10:14 is likely a historical allusion, but modern lack of information makes it difficult to assign it to a particular historical situation or ruler, Assyrian or otherwise. See below for the endnotes to the box at the top of p. 50.)

37. Sargon II, king, r. 721–705, Isaiah 20:1, in many inscriptions, including his own. See Raging Torrent, pp. 80–109, 176–179, 182; COS, vol. 2, pp. 293–300; Mikko Lukko, The Correspondence of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon II from Calah/Nimrud (State Archives of Assyria, no. 19; Assyrian Text Corpus Project; Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2013); ABC, pp. 236–238; IBP, pp. 240–241 no. (74).

38. Sennacherib, king, r. 704–681, 2 Kings 18:13, etc., in many inscriptions, including his own. See Raging Torrent, pp. 110–129; COS, vol. 2, pp. 300–305; ABC, pp. 238–240; ANEHST, pp. 407–411, esp. 410; IBP, pp. 241–242.

39. Adrammelech (= Ardamullissu = Arad-mullissu), son and assassin of Sennacherib, fl. early 7th century, 2 Kings 19:37, etc., in a letter sent to Esarhaddon, who succeeded Sennacherib on the throne of Assyria. See Raging Torrent, pp. 111, 184, and COS, vol. 3, p. 244, both of which describe and cite with approval Simo Parpola, “The Murderer of Sennacherib,” in Death in Mesopotamia: Papers Read at the XXVie Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, ed. Bendt Alster (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1980), pp. 171–182. See also ABC, p. 240.

An upcoming scholarly challenge is the identification of Sennacherib’s successor, Esarhaddon, as a more likely assassin in Andrew Knapp’s paper, “The Murderer of Sennacherib, Yet Again,” to be read in a February 2014 Midwest regional conference in Bourbonnais, Ill. (SBL/AOS/ASOR).

On various renderings of the neo-Assyrian name of the assassin, see RlA s.v. “Ninlil,” vol. 9, pp. 452–453 (in German). On the mode of execution of those thought to have been  conspirators in the assassination, see the selection from Ashurbanipal’s Rassam cylinder in ANET, p. 288.

40. Esarhaddon, king, r. 680–669, 2 Kings 19:37, etc., in his many inscriptions. See Raging Torrent, pp. 130–147; COS, vol. 2, p. 306; ABC, pp. 217–219. Esarhaddon’s name appears in many cuneiform inscriptions (ANET, pp. 272–274, 288–290, 292–294, 296, 297, 301–303, 426–428, 449, 450, 531, 533–541, 605, 606), including his Succession Treaty (ANEHST, p. 355).

BABYLONIA

41. Merodach-baladan II (=Marduk-apla-idinna II), king, r. 721–710 and 703, 2 Kings 20:12, etc., in the inscriptions of Sennacherib and the Neo-Babylonian Chronicles (Raging Torrent, pp. 111, 174, 178–179, 182–183. For Sennacherib’s account of his first campaign, which was against Merodach-baladan II, see COS, vol. 2, pp. 300-302. For the Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series, Chronicle 1, i, 33–42, see ANEHST, pp. 408–409. This king is also included in the Babylonian King List A (ANET, p. 271), and the latter part of his name remains in the reference to him in the Synchronistic King List (ANET, pp. 271–272), on which see ABC, pp. 226, 237.

42. Nebuchadnezzar II, king, r. 604–562, 2 Kings 24:1, etc., in many cuneiform tablets, including his own inscriptions. See Raging Torrent, pp. 220–223; COS, vol. 2, pp. 308–310; ANET, pp. 221, 307–311; ABC, p. 232. The Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series refers to him in Chronicles 4 and 5 (ANEHST, pp. 415, 416–417, respectively). Chronicle 5, reverse, lines 11–13, briefly refers to his conquest of Jerusalem (“the city of Judah”) in 597 by defeating “its king” (Jehoiachin), as well as his appointment of “a king of his own choosing” (Zedekiah) as king of Judah.

43. Nebo-sarsekim, chief official of Nebuchadnezzar II, fl. early 6th century, Jeremiah 39:3, in a cuneiform inscription on Babylonian clay tablet BM 114789 (1920-12-13, 81), dated to 595 B.C.E. The time reference in Jeremiah 39:3 is very close, to the year 586. Since it is extremely unlikely that two individuals having precisely the same personal name would have been, in turn, the sole holders of precisely this unique position within a decade of each other, it is safe to assume that the inscription and the book of Jeremiah refer to the same person in different years of his time in office. In July 2007 in the British Museum, Austrian researcher Michael Jursa discovered this Babylonian reference to the biblical “Nebo-sarsekim, the Rab-saris” (rab ša-rēši, meaning “chief official”) of Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 604–562). Jursa identified this official in his article, “Nabu-šarrūssu-ukīn, rab ša-rēši, und ‘Nebusarsekim’ (Jer. 39:3),” Nouvelles Assyriologiques Breves et Utilitaires2008/1 (March): pp. 9–10 (in German). See also Bob Becking, “Identity of Nabusharrussu-ukin, the Chamberlain: An Epigraphic Note on Jeremiah 39,3. With an Appendix on the Nebu(!)sarsekim Tablet by Henry Stadhouders,” Biblische Notizen NF 140 (2009): pp. 35–46; “Corrections,” pp. 121–124; “Sixteen,” p. 47 n. 31. On the correct translation of ráb ša-rēši (and three older, published instances of it having been incorrect translated as rab šaqê), see ITP, p. 171 n. 16.

44. Evil-merodach (= Awel Marduk, = Amel Marduk), king, r. 561–560, 2 Kings 25:27, etc., in various inscriptions (ANET, p. 309; OROT, pp. 15, 504 n. 23). See especially Ronald H. Sack, Amel-Marduk: 562-560 B.C.; A Study Based on Cuneiform, Old Testament, Greek, Latin and Rabbinical Sources (Alter Orient und Altes Testament, no. 4; Kevelaer, Butzon & Bercker, and Neukirchen-Vluyn, Neukirchener, 1972).

45. Belshazzar, son and co-regent of Nabonidus, fl. ca. 543?–540, Daniel 5:1, etc., in Babylonian administrative documents and the “Verse Account” (Muhammed A. Dandamayev, “Nabonid, A,” RlA, vol. 9, p. 10; Raging Torrent, pp. 215–216; OROT, pp. 73–74). A neo-Babylonian text refers to him as “Belshazzar the crown prince” (ANET, pp. 309–310 n. 5).

PERSIA

46. Cyrus II (=Cyrus the great), king, r. 559–530, 2 Chronicles 36:22, etc., in various inscriptions (including his own), for which and on which see ANEHST, pp. 418–426, ABC, p. 214. For Cyrus’ cylinder inscription, see Raging Torrent, pp. 224–230; ANET, pp. 315–316; COS, vol. 2, pp. 314–316; ANEHST, pp. 426–430; P&B, pp. 87–92. For larger context and implications in the biblical text, see OROT, pp. 70-76.

47. Darius I (=Darius the Great), king, r. 520–486, Ezra 4:5, etc., in various inscriptions, including his own trilingual cliff inscription at Behistun, on which see P&B, pp. 131–134. See also COS, vol. 2, p. 407, vol. 3, p. 130; ANET, pp. 221, 316, 492; ABC, p. 214; ANEHST, pp. 407, 411. On the setting, see OROT, pp. 70–75.

48. Xerxes I (= Ahasuerus), king, r. 486–465, Esther 1:1, etc., in various inscriptions, including his own (P&B, p. 301; ANET, pp. 316–317), and in the dates of documents from the time of his reign (COS, vol. 2, p. 188, vol. 3, pp. 142, 145. On the setting, see OROT, pp. 70–75.

49. Artaxerxes I Longimanus, king, r. 465-425/424, Ezra 4:6, 7, etc., in various inscriptions, including his own (P&B, pp. 242–243), and in the dates of documents from the time of his reign (COS, vol. 2, p. 163, vol. 3, p. 145; ANET, p. 548).

50. Darius II Nothus, king, r. 425/424-405/404, Nehemiah 12:22, in various inscriptions, including his own (for example, P&B, pp. 158–159) and in the dates of documents from the time of his reign (ANET, p. 548; COS, vol. 3, pp. 116–117).
http://www.biblicalarchaeology.or...-bible-confirmed-archaeologically

Idea
CJ

 


Red Sea reveals Exodus
October, 2014
 Archaeologists Discover Remains of Egyptian Army From the Biblical Exodus.
Suez| Egypt’s Antiquities Ministry announced this morning that a team of underwater archaeologists had discovered that remains of a large Egyptian army from the 14th century BC, at the bottom of the Gulf of Suez, 1.5 kilometers offshore from the modern city of  Ras Gharib. The team was searching for the remains of ancient ships and artefacts related to Stone Age and Bronze Age trade in the Red Sea area, when they stumbled upon a gigantic mass of human bones darkened by age.

The scientists lead by Professor Abdel Muhammad Gader and associated with Cairo University’s Faculty of Archaeology, have already recovered a total of more than 400 different skeletons, as well as hundreds of weapons and pieces of armor, also the remains of two war chariots, scattered over an area of approximately 200 square meters. They estimate that more than 5000 other bodies could be dispersed over a wider area, suggesting that an army of large size who have perished on the site.

This magnificient blade from an egyptian khopesh,  was certainly the weapon of an important character. It was discovered near the remains of a highly decorated war chariot, suggesting it could have belonged to a prince or nobleman.

This magnificient blade from an egyptian khopesh, was certainly the weapon of an important character. It was discovered near the remains of a richly decorated war chariot, suggesting it could have belonged to a prince or nobleman.

Many clues on the site have brought Professor Gader and his team to conclude that the bodies could be linked to the famous episode of the Exodus. First of all, the ancient soldiers seem to have died on dry ground, since no  traces of boats or ships have been found in the area. The positions of the bodies and the fact that they were stuck in a vast quantity of clay and rock, implie that they could have died in a mudslide or a tidal wave.

The shear number of bodies suggests that a large ancient army perished on the site and the dramatic way by which they were killed, both seem to corroborate the biblical version of the Red Sea Crossing, when the army of the Egyptian Pharaoh was destroyed by the returning waters that Moses had parted. This new find certainly proves that there was indeed an Egyptian army of large size that was destroyed by the waters of the Red Sea during the reign of King Akhenaten.

The famous biblical account of the "Red Sea Crossing" was dismisseded by many scholars and historians as more symbolic than historical.
For centuries, the famous biblical account of the “Red Sea Crossing” was dismissed by most scholars and historians as more symbolic than historical.
This astounding discovery brings undeniable scientific proof that one the most famous episodes of the Old Testament was indeed, based on an historical event. It brings a brand new perspective on a story that many historians have been considering for years as a work of fiction, and suggesting that other themes like the “Plagues of Egypt” could indeed have an historical base.

A lot more research and many more recovery operations are to be expected on the site over the next few years, as Professor Gader and his team have already announced their desire to retrieve the rest of the bodies and artefacts from was has turned out to be one of the richest archaeological underwater sites ever discovered.
http://worldnewsdailyreport.com/r...ian-army-from-the-biblical-exodus
BornAgain2

There's been alot of discoveries in recent years - and no, they're not hoaxed either.
CJ

SHAME!  Kentucky says 'NOAH' Tax Breaks!
December 10, 2014
-  Answers in Genesis founder Ken Ham, Creation Museum.
Kentucky has withdrawn its offer of tax breaks for the Creation Museum park that would feature a 500-foot-long wooden ark because its organizers plan to screen park employees based on religion.

The planned Ark Encounter park has evolved from a tourism attraction into an outreach for the Christian ministry that is building it.  Kentucky state tourism tax incentives cannot be used to advance religion.

Kentucky-based Answers in Genesis operates the Creation Museum. Foundation work and earth-moving are underway at the site in Grant County near Williamstown.

VP Mark Looy is exploring its legal options.  The project had received preliminary approval in July for up to $18 million in tax rebates.

Gov. Steve Beshear, who had supported the project since 2010, said the leaders of the project had gone back on a pledge not to discriminate in hiring.  Beshear said "it has become apparent that they do intend to use religious beliefs as a litmus test for hiring decisions."

Genesis lawyer Jim Parsons wrote that the Answers in Genesis subsidiary Crosswater Canyon, which will operate the Ark Encounter, has the legal right to "include religion as a criteria in its future hiring decisions."
http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStor...breaks-noahs-ark-project-27518858
https://answersingenesis.org

I see no reason to hire someone who does NOT believe the answers are in Genesis!  LOL!
CJ




Divers find treasure off Israeli coast
February 18, 2015
-  Divers discovered gold coins while diving in the ancient sunken harbor of Caesarea Israel.  They notified the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), which sent an underwater team to recover the treasure.  Nearly 2,000 gold coins dating back to the 11th century.  Experts believe the coins either belonged to a large merchant ship or were collected taxes en route to Cairo when the transport ship sunk.  The coins were in near perfect condition, and required no special cleaning or other conservation efforts.
http://www.israeltoday.co.il/NewsItem/tabid/178/nid/26072/Default.aspx
CJ

Did King David Actually Exist? Extraordinary Artifact Confirms Biblical Account
12/22/14  A nearly 3,000-year-old artifact currently on display in New York City confirms the historicity of King David and contradicts the secular belief that the biblical monarch never actually existed.

In recent years, some historians and archaeologists have claimed that King David of the Bible was an entirely fictional character. Others contend that the narratives of David’s kingdom found in 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles are inaccurate embellishments of history.

“The most popular legends about David are the creation of generations who lived long after him,” wrote Jacob Wright of Emory University in an online article. “David’s slaying of Goliath, his exploits in the court of Saul, his relationship to Jonathan and Michal, his fate as a fugitive, his military triumphs abroad, his affair with Bathsheba, his civil war with Absalom, his succession by Solomon—all these colorfully depicted episodes were created by later generations of writers.”

However, an artifact currently on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York directly challenges these allegations. Known as the Tel Dan Stela, the artifact is a ninth-century B.C. stone slab that features carefully-incised Aramaic text. The artifact’s inscriptions commemorate an Aramean king’s military expeditions and reference both the “king of Israel” and the “king of the House of David.”

Experts say the relic, which was discovered in 1993, provides nearly incontrovertible proof of King David’s existence. Henry Smith, Jr., Director of Development for the Associates for Biblical Research, told Christian News Network that the inscription provides “powerful extra-biblical evidence that is in accord with the biblical presentation of David as the King of Israel.”

According to Smith, the Tel Dan Stela is “highly significant,” because it corroborates the Bible’s historical accounts. However, Smith said the artifact is not the only archaeological evidence that supports the scriptural narrative of David’s reign.

“In the 19th century, the Mesha Stela (also known as the Moabite Stone) was discovered in Jordan, and references ‘the house of David,’” he stated. “This important discovery is often ignored or dismissed by liberal scholars and skeptics across the board. Further, Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen has identified an inscription in the Temple of Amun at Karnak that he believes reads ‘the heights of David.’”

All these discoveries point to one conclusion: King David actually existed.

“The Tel Dan Stela not only mentions the ‘house of David’ as well, but is a hostile witness to David’s historicity,” Smith added. “That is, it was inscribed by enemies of Israel from Aram. Further, it shows that kings who were enemies of Israel from later periods after David’s death recognized that the kings of Israel were of David’s lineage.”

Despite the historical evidence, many scholars and archaeologists still reject the Bible’s historical accounts. Smith suggested this rejection is due to several factors.

“First, they often ignore the actual chronology that the Bible provides for the events it reports,” he asserted. “Thus, they try to incorrectly correlate events in the Bible with archaeological evidence that is not from the actual period when the biblical events took place. We find this especially with respect to the book of Joshua and the conquest of Jericho, Ai and Hazor.”

“Second,” he continued, “their foundational presupposition is that the text of the Old Testament was redacted, amended and changed by editors and compilers with human-centered agendas, political and otherwise. These extensive redactions supposedly took place over many centuries.”

According to Smith, “there is not one shred of proof” for these elaborate, anti-biblical theories.


Smith further told Christian News Network that archaeological evidence is subject to a wide range of interpretations, which can often be biased or inaccurate.

“The problem is that archaeology yields much more material culture than it does actual written texts, and material culture is subject to wide arrays of interpretation,” he said. “Material culture does not ‘speak’ in the same way a written text can speak, and thus, it requires us to be cautious about the way we understand the material culture of antiquity.”

Smith encourages Christians to consider the reliability of the Bible and to realize that the gospel message is grounded in history.

“The God of Scripture is the Creator, Sustainer, and Sovereign Lord of all history,” he stated. “The Bible is filled with references to real people, real events and real chronology. Christians must take Scripture seriously in this regard. After all, Jesus Christ was born into this fallen world to redeem His people and the entire cosmos, at a particular time and in a particular place. He is the fulfillment of the entire Old Testament revelation. We should be reminded of what Paul wrote to the Galatian church: ‘When the time had fully come, God sent His Son…’”
http://christiannews.net/2014/12/...rtifact-confirms-biblical-account
CJ

Spelunkers Unearth More Rare Objects in Israeli Cave
March 2015  A month after the discovery of the largest cache of ancient coins ever hauled from the Mediterranean, spelunkers have unearthed another treasure trove of rare coins, silver and bronze objects in a cave in northern Israel.

Three members of the Israeli Caving Club, Reuven Zakai, Chen Zakai and a Lior Haloney recently lowered themselves into a well-hidden stalactite cave, wriggled through a narrow passageway and happened upon the shiny objects.
A handful of coins, rings, bracelets and earrings were all discovered together inside a cloth pouch dating back some 2,300 years ago.

Archaeologists say the coins were likely minted during the reign of Alexander the Great, and the artifacts first date to the Chalcolithic period about 6,000 years ago; from the Early Bronze Age roughly 5,000 years ago, the Biblical period 3,000 years ago and the Hellenistic period approximately 2,300 years ago.

“The valuables might have been hidden in the cave by local residents who fled there during the period of governmental unrest stemming from the death of Alexander, a time when the Wars of the Diadochi broke out in Israel between Alexander’s heirs following his death,” according to archaeologists at the Israel Antiquities Authority. "Presumably the cache was hidden in the hope of better days, but today we know that whoever buried the treasure never returned to collect it."

Working off this discovery, archaeologists and geologists will be able to accurately date both the archaeological finds and the process of stalactite development, according to the Authority’s statement.

Amir Ganor, director of the Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Robbery in the Israel Antiquities Authority, thanked the cavers for their “exemplary civic behavior," praising the "citizens' awareness." Following last month’s discovery by civilian scuba divers, Ganor welcomes this "important trend."
https://gma.yahoo.com/spelunkers-...1619413--abc-news-topstories.html
CJ




Artifacts from Egypt rule of Canaan
April 1, 2015
-  Impressive 3,000-year-old artifacts from Egypt rule of Canaan found in Negev cave.  Archaeological artifacts, mostly from 3,000 years ago, were found in an underground cave in the Tel Halif area in southern Israel.  Artifacts were used by the tribe of Judah, the only tribe of Israel not to be exiled to Babylon in the late Bronze Age.

They discovered 300 pottery vessels, some still intact, dozens of pieces of jewelry made of bronze, shells and faience, unique vessels fashioned from yellowish alabaster, seals, seal impressions and cosmetic vessels.

Most artifacts are characteristic of the Judahite culture (the tribe of Judah, which wasn't exiled to Babylon).  Dozens of stone seals, some of which are shaped in the form of a winged beetle (scarabs) and bear carved symbols and images typical of the Egyptian culture. Some of the seals were fashioned on semi-precious stones that come from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula.
The names of kings appeared on some of the seals, pharaoh Thutmose, Amenhotep.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4643349,00.html
CJ

Pottery shards supports Bible
April 27, 2015
-  Archaeologists in Israel are working to decipher the meaning of inscriptions found on 2,500-year-old pottery fragments.

The pieces are from the First Temple-era and the fragment is known as ostracon, one of the inscriptions describes the book of Jeremiah.  More than 100 ostraca written in Paleo-Hebrew script have been found in Arad in southern Israel.

One of the potsherds from Arad, probably sent to one of Eliashiv’s superior officers, is a panicked note from the king in Jerusalem with an order ‘incumbent upon your very life’ to send reinforcements to nearby Ramat Negeb to counter a threat from the Edomites.  Shortly after the order was received, the Edomites, who were allied with the Babylonians, overran the entire area and destroyed the Arad citadel.
http://www.christianheadlines.com...o-support-biblical-narrative.html
CJ

Billions of Dollars of Gold Discovered Under Eilat Mountains
June 15, 2015
-  A treasure-trove of raw gold worth billions of dollars is believed to be sitting under Mount Eilat in southern Israel, which had been kept under wraps for the last several years.
http://www.breakingisraelnews.com...ld-jerusalem/#4US8RzwfRRUsMwDc.97

That is interesting BA, but disturbing.
The world already wants to wipe out Israel.
Gold just gives them more incentive - which they dont need.

Gold in Israel ties with the Hashemites - Jordan.  Despite outwardly chilly relations between Jerusalem and Amman, the two states enjoy close cooperation. October, 2014
http://www.timesofisrael.com/find...-israels-ties-with-the-hashemites

Gold unearthed at base of Temple Mount.  Byzantine-era coins and unique menorah medallion found by Hebrew University archaeologists at site abutting Southern Wall. September, 2013
http://www.timesofisrael.com/gold...unearthed-at-base-of-temple-mount

Golden Crusade Hoard found in Israel NOV 27, 2012
http://news.discovery.com/history...-roman-crusade-ancient-120711.htm

The gold of that land is good; the bdellium and the onyx stone are there. Genesis 2:12
CJ

Israeli archaeologists find inscription of name from Bible
June 2015
JERUSALEM — Israel’s antiquities authority says archaeologists have discovered a rare 3,000-year-old inscription of a name mentioned in the Bible.
The name “Eshbaal Ben Beda” appears on a large ceramic jar. Eshbaal of the Bible was a son of King Saul.
Archaeologists Yosef Garfinkel and Saar Ganor say the jar belonged to a different Eshbaal, likely the owner of an agricultural estate.

They said Tuesday it is the first time the name was discovered in an ancient inscription. It is one of only four inscriptions discovered from the biblical 10th century B.C. Kingdom of Judah, when King David is said to have reigned.
Archaeologists pieced together the inscription from pottery shards found at a 2012 excavation in the Valley of Elah in central Israel.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wor...11e5-8457-4b431bf7ed4c_story.html
CJ

Leviticus unearthed
July 21, 2015
-  Digital imaging reveals oldest biblical text since Dead Sea Scrolls
Micro CT scanning allows archaeologists to read charred 1,500-year-old parchment, which was discovered 45 years ago.  Israeli archaeologists had discerned biblical writing on a charred parchment with the help of digital imaging and described the text as the oldest found since the Dead Sea Scrolls.

US and Israeli researchers made the discovery using advanced medical and digital technology to examine the scroll first unearthed 45 years ago.
The scroll dated to around the year 600 and turned up inside the remains of an ancient synagogue.  Merkel Technologies, an Israeli company specializing in high-tech medical equipment, helped in the deciphering by providing micro C-T scanning.
These findings were the first 8 verses of the book of Leviticus.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4682359,00.html

The world needs to read Leviticus the 18th chapter!
http://biblehub.com/niv/leviticus/18.htm
CJ




Goliath city found in Judea, Israel
August 5, 2015 -  Biblical city of Gath of the Philistines discovered, home of the Goliath clan of giants
.
Archaeologists discover humongous entrance gate to Goliath's City.  Discovery sheds light on Gath’s status and influence in the 10th century BCE

Team of archaeologists from Bar-Ilan University discovers the fortifications and entrance gate of the Philistine (Palestinian) city of Gath. (Gaza https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gath_(city)  )
The excavations located in the Judean Foothills about halfway between Jerusalem and Ashkelon in central Israel.

Gath of the Philistines, home of Goliaths and the largest city in the land during the 10th-9th century BCE, about the time of the United Kingdom of Israel and Israeli King Ahab.  Elements of Israelite techniques indicate there was more interaction between the two cultures than previously thought.  (That would NOT have been good in God's Eye)

The gate is among the largest ever found in Israel and is evidence of the status and influence of Gath during this period.  The city was destroyed by Hazael King of Aram Damascus around 830 BC.  There is evidence of an earthquake in the 8th century BCE possibly connected to the earthquake mentioned in the Book of Amos I:1.  More Philistine culture remains relating to Hazael, King of Aram Damascus around 830 BCE, as mentioned in 2 Kings 12:18.

The Old Testament describes Gath as the home of Goliath, the enormous warrior killed with a slingshot by the young Israelite David who would go on to found a dynasty of kings.

A Philistine inscription contains 2 names similar to the name Goliath.
Goliath was a clan of giants, several of the beings, all with the Goliath clan name.
There are still Palestinians in Gaza using clan names.
Goliath may have been roughly 15 feet tall.
http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/wor...town/ar-BBlmP2o?ocid=ansTheWeek11
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/scienc...ty-Philistine-Gath-unearthed.html
http://www.timesofisrael.com/arch...rth-the-gate-to-goliaths-hometown
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/198998#.VcM3T3FVhBc

I Samuel 21
2 Kings 12:18
Amos

Giants, UNIQUE TEACHING by Perry Stone
https://youtu.be/Lrcno-b5zlU
BornAgain2

Interesting these discoveries are coming out in these last days we're living in.

I know we walk by faith, and not by sight - but I do believe this is one of the very few signs by sight the LORD is showing everyone. JMHO
CJ

Allah linked to Lucifer - the devil
August 24, 2015
 Walid Shoebat  -  Archeologists discover a 4000 year old item linking Allah to Lucifer.
Allah is linked to the great rebellion, sex, war.

Amid excavations at sites in Turkey was a cuneiform tablet with symbols of Ishtar, known as the Hittite goddess of love, war, fertility and sexuality. Ishtar or the queen of harlots goddess.

Ishtar and the snake beast god known as Ishtaran another name for “Allah” who was a transvestite (dual male and female nature).
Archeologists did not coverup the name “Allah.”
http://shoebat.com/2015/08/21/arc...o-lucifer-and-the-harlot-religion

Easter is from Ishtar
Christians should NEVER refer to Easter! only resurrection Sonday
CJ

Goliaths discovered in Israel prove Bible
September 2, 2015  Shoebat
-  Archeologists discover where Goliath lived.
Pastor Perry Stone and others have talked about this.
The Israelites had to conquor them - one clan at a time - as they entered the Promised Land.  How timely that Jew celebrate Sukkot later this month in remembrance of God's deliverance from Egypt.

Israeli archaeologists announced the discovery of a massive gate and other fortifications in the ruins of Gath, the hometown of the Bible’s Goliath.  The ancient gate is one of the largest ever discovered in Israel and evidence of the Philistine power.  Gath even made a brief appearance in the Bible when David, Goliath’s slayer and future king of Israel, acted like a madman, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

They have discovered several Goliaths in Israel and elsewhere that match biblical description.  Goliath bones were buried side by side with humans found on Mount Carmel and other locations in Israel and elsewhere in the world.
http://shoebat.com/2015/08/17/arc...goliaths-living-in-ancient-israel


Giants, UNIQUE TEACHING by Perry Stone
This story goes well with this discovery
https://youtu.be/Lrcno-b5zlU

I have this on page 2 also - added this anyway
CJ

Ashkelon, Israel Sarcophagus discovered
September 3, 2015
-  Ashkelon police find impressive sarcophagus (stone coffin).
An 1,800 year-old stone sarcophagus was discovered at a building site in Ashkelon.
It is one of the rarest ever discovered in Israel, made of hard limestone and is 2.5 meters long, sculpted on all sides. A life-size figure of a person is carved on the lid, a Roman in a tunic, wreaths and images.
These were usually placed in a family mausoleum. The high level of decoration attested to the family’s affluence, which was probably not Jewish.
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/200254#.VegPBNLBzRY
CJ

Oldest Koran discovered
September 6, 2015 -  World's oldest fragments of the Koran found by the University of Birmingham.
Birmingham manuscript written on sheep or goat skin, were from between 568 and 645 CE.
Mohammed could not read or write and he was a murderer and thief, NOT a prophet.
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/198462#.Vev18NJVhBc

These are MOST probably fake.
CJ

Tomb of the Maccabees
Sept 21, 2015
-  Israeli archaeologists found the tomb of the Maccabees in the city of Modin west of Jerusalem.  The Maccabees fought off Greek occupation over 2,000 years ago.  Matityahu the Hasmonean and his 5 sons led the uprising against Greek rule and were responsible for cleansing the impurity from the Second Temple, in an event marked yearly during the festival of Hanukkah.
The Maccabees only had enough oil for one day for the temple candles.  God did a - Miracle of the Lights - and it lasted 8 days, til more oil could be made.  Thus Hanukah, the festival of dedication (lights), is celebrated near the Christian Christmas.  Jesus celebrated this holiday.  John 10:22
The catholic bible includes a book of Maccabees, which is interesting history, but NOT on par with the Word of GOD.  Christians thru out extra books which conflict with the teachings of Christ.
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/200913#.Vf_TqNJVhBc

Video tour
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/200961#.VgEgEdJVhBc
CJ




Pre-Christ Temple seal found
Sept 26, 2015 Jerusalem
-  Russian tourist finds 3,000-year-old seal in Jerusalem from the First Temple era.  It probably belonged to a high-ranking figure who used it to sign letters and documents.
The seal has a conical shape, is made of brown limestone, and its height is 16 millimeters. At its round bottom of 14 millimeters are engraved the figures of two animals. The seal is pierced, so that it could hang from a string.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4704106,00.html
CJ

Acra, site of ancient Jewish Revolt unearthed
Nov 4, 2015
-  Archaeological find in Jerusalem, City of David.
Archaeologists in Jerusalem may have solved a geographical mystery.
The Acra was built specifically to control access to the Temple Mount, and cut it off.
The discovery of the Acra is a dream come true for archaeologists.

Excavators recently unearthed what they think are the ruins of the Acra, a fortress constructed 2,000 years ago by Antiochus Epiphanes (215-164 B.C.).  At one time Maccabees Jews controlled the fortress.

Flavius Josephus wrote, … and when he had overthrown the city walls, he built a citadel [Greek: Acra] in the lower part of the city (Jerusalem), for the place was high and overlooked the temple, on which account he fortified it with high walls and towers, and put into it a garrison of Macedonians.
Coins found within the Acra's unearthed wall show that the citadel remained intact until 129 B.C.
http://www.livescience.com/52671-...rce=LI&li_medium=most-popular
http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/...nswer-100-year-old-mystery-431895

Archaeology
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/about4456.html

I wondered why I couldnt find Acra in the bible.  Its not in the 66 books of the canon of the Holy Bible.  Its in the Maccabees, one of the books catholics add.

Maccabees is interesting history but NOT on par with the inspired Holy Word of GOD.  The celebration of the miracle of Hannukkah is due to the victory and God's blessing on the Maccabees.

NEVER EVER mistake extras for the inspired Word of GOD!
CJ

King Hezekiah seal found
Dec 2, 2015
-  Seal bearing name of Judean king Hezekiah found in Jerusalem.
The find supports the historicity of the First Temple era.  Impression with - Hezekiah [son of] Ahaz, king of Judah - unearthed next to Temple Mount, shores up historicity of First Temple era.  Archaeologists deciphered a seal impression bearing the name of the 8th century BCE biblical King Hezekiah recently found during Jerusalem excavations.  The artifact is decorated with Egyptian motifs, a winged sun disk and an ankh, symbol of life.
http://www.timesofisrael.com/seal...of-judean-king-found-in-jerusalem
CJ

Remains of a citadel
Jan 6, 2016
 -  The remains of a 3,400-year-old Canaanite citadel, which were recently unearthed in the middle of the coastal city Nahariya, are to be preserved and incorporated in an apartment high-rise, not far from the beach.

The citadel was used as an administrative center that served the mariners who sailed along the Mediterranean coast 3,400 years ago.  Numerous artifacts were discovered in its rooms, including ceramic figurines in form of humans and animals, bronze weapons and imported pottery vessels that attest to the extensive commercial and cultural relations that existed at that time with Cyprus and the rest of the lands in the Mediterranean basin.

The archaeologists found the fortress was burned down at least four times, and rebuilt each time. A large amount of cereal, legumes and grape seeds were found in the burnt layers, which are indicative of the provisions the sailors would purchase.
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/206033#.VozvSrYrK9I
CJ

Israel
Archaeologists uncover inscriptions in Jesus’ Llanguage
Jan 30, 2016
-  Archaeologists in Israel have uncovered ancient epitaphs in both Greek and Aramaic which date back to the first century in a Zippori cemetery in the Galilee.  Zippori was the first capital of Galilee from the time of the Hasmonean dynasty until the establishment of Tiberias in the first century CE.

Four words which are part of the inscriptions were Jose, a common Jewish name, the three other words are Aramaic for the Tiberian, forever, and rabbi.

This discovery is important because it proves the existence of a Jewish community in the region from ancient times, something which the Palestinian Authority continually denies.
http://www.christianheadlines.com...scriptions-in-jesus-language.html
BornAgain2

CJ wrote:
Israel
Archaeologists uncover inscriptions in Jesus’ Llanguage
Jan 30, 2016
-  Archaeologists in Israel have uncovered ancient epitaphs in both Greek and Aramaic which date back to the first century in a Zippori cemetery in the Galilee.  Zippori was the first capital of Galilee from the time of the Hasmonean dynasty until the establishment of Tiberias in the first century CE.

Four words which are part of the inscriptions were Jose, a common Jewish name, the three other words are Aramaic for the Tiberian, forever, and rabbi.

This discovery is important because it proves the existence of a Jewish community in the region from ancient times, something which the Palestinian Authority continually denies.
http://www.christianheadlines.com...scriptions-in-jesus-language.html


We're seeing more of these discoveries in these last days.

Praise God!!!!

1 Corinthians 1:22  For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom:
CJ

Pool of Siloam discovered
Feb 9, 2016
-  Discovery of pool where Jesus healed blind man should wash away doubts on the Bible.  Archaeological evidence unearthed that supports the historical accuracy of the Holy Bible.

One is the discovery of the ancient pool of Siloam, the exact place where Jesus Christ healed a blind man.  This story is told in the Gospel of John, where Jesus told His disciples that the man's blindness was not caused by his sins or his parents' shortcomings. Jesus then spat on the ground, made clay of the spittle, and applied the clay to the eyes of the blind man, whom He ordered to wash in the pool of Siloam.
http://biblehub.com/bsb/john/9.htm

For years, some have doubted the historical accuracy of John.  The discovery of the pool of Siloam was almost by accident since it was uncovered during construction work to repair a water pipe near the Temple Mount.

The discovery of the ancient pool led not only to archaeological evidence to support the Gospel of John, but also to verification of an event told in the Book of Chronicles in the Old Testament.
King Hezekiah blocked the upper outlet of the Gihon spring and channelled the water down to the west side of the City of David. The pool of Siloam is believed to be part of this water outlet.
http://www.christiantoday.com/art...e.christian.author.says/78920.htm

God is so amazing.
in this day of doubt - He is bringing Light - to those who will look
BornAgain2

Psalm 66:3  Say unto God, How terrible art thou in thy works! through the greatness of thy power shall thine enemies submit themselves unto thee.
BornAgain2

Archaeologists in Jerusalem find city's oldest known settlement
http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/wor...lement/ar-BBpC2MK?ocid=spartandhp
2/17/16

Israeli authorities announced Wednesday they had uncovered findings proving for the first time the existence of an established human settlement in Jerusalem as far back as 7,000 years ago.

A dig in the annexed east Jerusalem neighbourhood Shuafat revealed two homes with parts of walls and floors intact, as well as "pottery vessels, flint tools, and a basalt bowl" characteristic of the Chalcolithic era, the Israel Antiquities Authority said.

The discoveries came to light during road work in the area.

In the Chalcolithic period humans were "still using stone tools, but began to create high-level ceramics and for the first time, copper tools as well," said Ronit Lupo, director of excavations at the authority.

They were also forming "established settlements with economies," Lupo said.

Researchers were long puzzled by the lack of hard evidence of Chalcolithic settlements in Jerusalem, which was a central route connecting the Dead Sea to the coastal area.

Chalcolithic settlements were found elsewhere in what is today Israel and Jordan.

Barzilai said the focus on Jerusalem's later historical eras could have led to researchers overlooking the Chalcolithic period, considered by some a bridge between antiquity and modern human communal existence.

"Now we can know that even in the periods prior to the First and Second Temples, even in the Chalcolithic period, it was an inhabited area," he said.

To Lupo, the new findings give closure to a long quest for Chalcolithic settlements in Jerusalem.

"For years in Jerusalem we had a feeling -- we knew it was there somewhere but never found it. But here we found it," she said.


Chalcolithic settlements have been found outside of Jerusalem, but prior to the Shuafat finding, only "fragmentary" remnants were unearthed in the city, according to the head of the authority's prehistory branch, Amnon Barzilai.
CJ

Jerusalem
First Temple-era seal found
Mar 7, 2016
 -  Rare First Temple-era seal found in Jerusalem, the City of David.
Archaeologists discover First Temple-era seals, one with a woman's name. Rare find that sheds significant light on owner's life.

2 seals found with Hebrew names, dating back to the time of the First Temple, in Jerusalem's City of David. The objects belonged to a woman and a man, Elihana bat Gael and Sa'aryahu ben Shabenyahu.

Finding seals that bear names from the time of the First Temple is rare, and finding a seal that belonged to a woman is even rarer.  The artifacts were discovered in a prominent building that is believed to have served as an administrative center.

Personal seals were used for signing documents, and were frequently inlaid as part of a ring that was worn by the owner. In antiquity they designated the identity, genealogy and status of the owner of the seal.
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/209027#.Vt1TWH0rK9I
BornAgain2

Again, ANOTHER AUTHENTIC discovery in these last days we're living in! Praise God!!!!

The Jews require a sign...
CJ

Russian archaeologists offer to help rebuild Palmyra
Archaeologists in Russia are offering help to rebuild Palmyra following its recapture from ISIS.  Palmyra, known as the bride of the desert, used to attract thousands of tourists.
http://www.aljazeera.com/news/201...uild-palmyra-160331055917947.html

Palmyra, Pearl of the desert
Just getting to Palmyra is a challenge.  ISIS mined the entrances, which have been painstakingly cleared by the Syrian Army, with Russian assistance.
http://www.rt.com/news/337737-rt-palmyra-syria-ruins
CJ

ISRAEL
Bronze Temple artifacts found

April  8, 2016
 -  Bronze artifacts tied to temple unearthed near Sea of Galilee about 2,000 years old.  A bronze incense shovel and jug dating back to the Second Temple Period were unearthed at an archaeological dig close to the town of Migdal in the Lower Galilee.

Volunteers from Chile discovered an ornate bronze incense shovel and a matching bronze jug believed to have stored incense or coals for ritual use.  The incense shovel is one of 10 others from the Second Temple period. We know that these are certainly sacred tools, perhaps pertaining to the local synagogue discovered on this site, a synagogue which was quite grand and rich and important in the region.

Exodus states: You shall make the altar… you shall make pots for it to receive its ashes, and shovels and basins and forks and firepans; all its utensils you shall make of bronze.

The site is located near the town of Migdal along the western shore of Sea of Galilee. Migdal (Magdala) was a large Jewish fishing and trade town in the Early Roman period. It is mentioned in Jewish sources, and at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple it served as a main military base for the Jewish historian Josephus.
Migdal was Mary Magdalene birthplace.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4788196,00.html
CJ

Philistine graveyard
July 10, 2016
 debka  -  Philistine graveyard found in Ashkelon.  The discovery of a large 3,000-year old Philistine cemetery outside Ashkelon.  160 bodies of the people of Goliath, biblical enemies of God.
http://debka.com/newsupdatepopup/...stine-graveyard-found-in-Ashkelon


Goliath's hometown of Gath found July, 2011
The Philistines (Palestinians) occupied the Mediterranean coastal plain.
Philistines ruled Ashkelon and Ashdod, now cities in Israel.
http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2011/...ists-unearth-bibles-bad-guys.html

Jeremiah 47 ties the Philistines to Ashkelon
http://biblehub.com/nasb/jeremiah/47.htm

King Uzziah made war against the Philistines
2 Chronicles 26
http://biblehub.com/esv/2_chronicles/26.htm


The Palestinians of today were the biblical enemies of God, the Philistines.
.
CJ




PERU * Elongated Skulls unknown DNA
July 24, 2016
-  DNA testing on 2,000-Year-Old Elongated Paracas Skulls Changes Known History.  The elongated skulls of Paracas in Peru caused a stir in 2014 when a geneticist that carried out preliminary DNA testing reported that they have mitochondrial DNA “with mutations unknown in any human, primate, or animal known so far”. Now a second round of DNA testing has been completed and the results are just as controversial – the skulls tested, which date back as far as 2,000 years, were shown to have European and Middle Eastern Origin. These surprising results change the known history about how the Americas were populated.

Paracas is a desert peninsula located within Pisco Province on the south coast of Peru. It is here where Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello, made an amazing discovery in 1928 – a massive and elaborate graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with the largest elongated skulls found anywhere in the world. These have come to be known as the ‘ Paracas skulls ’. In total, Tello found more than 300 of these elongated skulls, some of which date back around 3,000 years.

It is well-known that most cases of skull elongation are the result of cranial deformation, head flattening, or head binding, in which the skull is intentionally deformed by applying force over a long period of time. It is usually achieved by binding the head between two pieces of wood, or binding in cloth. However, while cranial deformation changes the shape of the skull, it does not alter other features that are characteristic of a regular human skull.
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/3452419/posts
http://www.ancient-origins.net/ne...ted-paracas-skulls-changes-020914


NEPHILIM - GIANTS of Genesis 6:4


Genesis chapter 6
http://bible.cc/genesis/6-4.htm


SONS of GOD, NEPHILIM
Merovingian illuminati Bloodline
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/about879.html

Giants in America, NEPHILIM
Black Eyed children -  NEVER let them in!
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/about4103.html

Steve Quayle  
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/about5454.html

Idea
CJ

Evil or Very Mad   Antarctica nephilim skulls
July 31, 2016
 -  Odd skulls found in Antarctica could be from aliens.  Not only have remains of historic inhabitants of Antarctica been found, but they could be from aliens.  3 ancient skulls were unearthed by archaeologists.  They were "elongated with giant craniums."

It was thought Antarctica was first reached by humans in 1820, hundreds of years after the suspected age of the skulls.  These elongated skulls are much, much larger than normal human skulls would be.

Elongated skulls have been found in Peru, Egypt and other areas with an ancient historical past.  Sure, the Nephilim were all over Earth in the Days of Noah.
http://www.express.co.uk/news/wei...n-Antarctica-could-be-from-aliens

Genesis 6:4 again
http://biblehub.com/niv/genesis/6.htm

Archaeology
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/ftopic4456-36.php

Exclamation
CJ

Synagogue unearthed in northern Israel
Aug 17, 2016
-  Building uncovered at Tel Rechesh excavation in lower Galilee is one of 8 synagogues discovered in Israel that predate the destruction of the Second Temple.  Jesus preached at Galilean synagogues.  This is the first synagogue discovered in the rural part of the Galilee and it confirms historical information we have about the New Testament.

In the period when the synagogue was active, it was used primarily so that local residents could gather, read from the Torah, and study the commandments, as Jewish worship focused on pilgrimages to Jerusalem and visits to the Temple to present sacrificial offerings.
http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_article.php?id=35679
CJ

Archaeologists in Israel
Sep 29, 2016
 -  Archaeologists have proved that passages of the Bible about the triumph of Judaism over the pagan Baal worship are literally true.  (Baal - child sacrifice, evil)  Excavations in Israel have for the first time discovered an actual physical toilet of the kind referred to in Kings.  Then they demolished the pillar of Baal, and destroyed the temple of Baal, and made it a latrine to this day. 2 Kings 10

The stone latrine was deliberately inserted into a Baal shrine to render it unclean, and therefore unusable as a shrine any more.  After the toilet was placed in the shrine, it was sealed and finally the gate was destroyed by Sennacherib, king of Assyria, in 701 BCE as described in 2 Kings 18 and 2 Chronicles 32.  Archaeologist were investigating the gate-shrine from the First Temple period, dating from the eighth century BC.

The city gates were where everything took place.
Elders, judges, governors, kings and officials would sit on benches at the city gate to rule the city and keep an eye on comings and goings.  These very benches were found in Jerusalem.
http://www.breakingisraelnews.com...te-shrine-unearthed-israel-photos
http://www.christiantoday.com/art....literal.truth.of.bible/96610.htm
http://www.wnd.com/2016/09/archae...ear-old-toilet-confirms-scripture


2 Kings 18
http://biblehub.com/niv/2_kings/18.htm

Idea
CJ

Oldest alphabet identified as Hebrew may confirm Biblical exodus
Nov. 2016
-  Douglas Petrovich, Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo (Canada) archaeologist is proposing an innovative reading of several inscriptions on Egyptian slabs from the 18th to 14th centuries BC. These slabs could be the first "alphabet" in the world, an early form of Hebrew with data that coincides with some contents of the early books of the Bible.

Petrovich stated that Israelites living in Egypt transformed the civilization’s hieroglyphics into "Hebrew 1.0". That would have happened more than 3,800 years ago, at a time when the Old Testament describes Jews living in Egypt.

Hebrew speakers, seeking a way to communicate in writing with other Egyptian Jews, simplified the pharaohs’ complex hieroglyphic writing system into 22 alphabetic letters.  There is a connection between ancient Egyptian texts and preserved alphabets.  Only an early version of Hebrew can make sense of the Egyptian inscriptions.

An inscription, dated to 1834 B.C., translated as Wine is more abundant than the daylight, than the baker, than a nobleman. The inscription across the top says: The overseer of minerals, Ahisamach.

Petrovich's thesis allowed him to translate some inscriptions that until now had no interpretation. He combined previous identifications of some letters in the ancient alphabet with his own identifications of disputed letters, to peg the script as Hebrew. Then, armed with the entire alphabet, he translated 18 Hebrew inscriptions from 3 Egyptian sites.

Several biblical figures turn up in the translated inscriptions, including Joseph’s wife Asenath and Moses, who led the Israelites out of Egypt. In the inscriptions across the top “The overseer of minerals, Ahisamach” is also mentioned. Joseph only appears in ME (Middle Egyptian) inscriptions.

An inscription, dated to 1834 B.C., is translated as “Wine is more abundant than the daylight, than the baker, than a nobleman.” This statement probably meant that, at that time or shortly before, drink was plentiful, but food was scarce, Petrovich suspects. Israelites, including Joseph and his family, likely moved to Egypt during a time of famine, when Egyptians were building silos to store food.
http://evangelicalfocus.com/cultu...ebrew_may_confirm_Biblical_exodus
nelli

Thanks for sharing.
CJ

     


Hanuka 2016
December 24, 2016 - January 1, 2017



Maccabean coin found
Dec 21, 2016
-  Just in time for Hanukkah!  A 2,000-year-old coin from Maccabean revolt found in Jerusalem.  A bronze coin that was in circulation in the time of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who decreed that the Jews must be annihilated and during whose reign the Maccabean revolt took place, has been discovered at the Tower of David archaeological site in Jerusalem.

During routine cleaning, Orna Cohen noticed a metal object among the stones of the Hasmonean Wall inside the citadel. A careful examination revealed that it was a bronze prutah, a coin that was in use over 2,000 years ago.

The front of the coin features Antiochus wearing a crown. The reverse features the image of a goddess wrapped in a scarf.  Officials know that these coins were minted in Acre, between 172 and 168 BCE.

Antiochus death sentence on Jews sparked the Maccabean revolt, and the joyous re-sanctification the Holy Temple and the miracle of the oil for only a day lasted 8 days, an event commemorated by Hanukkah.
http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_article.php?id=38875

Archaeology, artifacts
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/ftopic4456-36.php

Hanukah Chanukah, festival of lights
http://cj.myfreeforum.org/about5396.html


And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter.
And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.
John 10:22-23

THIS is the time of Hannuka - which celebrates the miracle of the lights - won by the Maccabees!  What a great time of the year for this find!
Also called feast of the dedication - of the Temple
CJ

Archaeological Discoveries of 2016
Jan 2, 2017  
-  Bible-Related Archaeological Discoveries of 2016.
Archaeological discoveries in 2016 hold particular significance for biblical history.

1. Ancient papyrus which mentions Jerusalem
An inscription on the papyrus reads, “From the king’s maidservant, from Naarat, jars of wine, to Jerusalem.”

2. An ancient glass production facility
The discovery proves that Judea was a center for glass manufacturing in the ancient world. It was found at the foot of Mt. Carmel.

3. Metal objects from an ancient sunken ship
The ship sunk while carrying the metal objects to be recycled, providing a rarely seen treasure trove for historians and archaeologists.

4. Solomon’s Palace at Gezer
Although this ancient palace does not have any direct connection to Solomon, it is from the same era--the 10th century B.C. Solomon reportedly rebuilt the city of Gezer where the palace resides. Gezer had been burned by the Egyptian pharaoh.

5. Hundreds of Roman writing tablets
400 Roman writing tablets were found in London dated to A.D. 57. The Bible makes mention of such tablets when it talks about Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist, writing on one in Luke 1:63.

6. Floor Designs from the Temple Mount
The designs on the tile floors of the Jewish Temple built by King Herod had to be uncovered through the Temple Mount Sifting Project since they were covered in illegally excavated dirt. Seven different designs have been recreated thus far.
http://www.christianheadlines.com...ological-discoveries-of-2016.html

.
BornAgain2

There certainly has been a number of genuine discoveries in these (potential) last days we're living in. The sign of the times from our LORD Jesus Christ! Amen!
CJ

xx
CJ

Fortified wall from King David's era exposed in southern Israel
http://worldisraelnews.com/fortif...hern-israel/#.WH9ABdiZbdU.twitter


Wink  Arkeology
Noah's Ark Mosaic
Jan 26, 2017  
-  Rare Noah's Ark Mosaic Uncovered in Ancient Synagogue in Israel.  Mosaics depicting prominent Bible scenes were uncovered during excavations of an ancient synagogue in Israel's Lower Galilee.  Archaeologists found 2 new panels of a mosaic floor in a Late Roman (fifth-century) synagogue at Huqoq. One panel showed Noah's ark with pairs of animals, such as lions, leopards and bears. The other panel depicted soldiers being swallowed by large fish, surrounded by overturned chariots in the parting of the Red Sea.
http://www.livescience.com/55318-...und-ancient-israel-synagogue.html

.
CJ

12th Dead Sea Scrolls cave discovered in Israel
Feb 9, 2017  
-  Archaeologists have found a cave that once housed Dead Sea scrolls in a cliff in the Judean desert - the first such discovery in over 60 years.  Storage jars, fragments of a scroll wrapping, and a leather tying string were found at the site.  The Dead Sea scrolls date from as early as the 4th Century BC.

The priceless records include more than 800 documents written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, mostly on animal skin and papyrus.  As well as containing the oldest copies of many biblical texts, they also include many secular writings about life in the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD.  The pottery jars and wrappings were found concealed in niches along the cave's walls, and inside a 4-6m (16-20ft) tunnel at its rear.
PHOTOS
http://www.foxnews.com/science/20...ls-cave-discovered-in-israel.html
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-38916687


This discovery proves that the Dead Sea Scrolls belong to Israel
http://www.foxnews.com/science/20...ls-cave-discovered-in-israel.html
CJ

King Sennacherib Palace Discovered
Mar 8, 2017  
-  Palace of Biblical Assyrian King Sennacherib Discovered under Tomb of Prophet Jonah.
ISIS destroyed the tomb of the prophet Jonah which was on top of the palace.  ISIS is often compared to the brutal merciless Assyrians.  Archaeologists now have the chance to study new discoveries.

The palace of King Sennacherib dates back to the seventh century B.C. The Assyrian King is mentioned in the Bible in II Chronicles 32:1 which says, "After all that Hezekiah had so faithfully done, Sennacherib king of Assyria came and invaded Judah. He laid siege to the fortified cities, thinking to conquer them for himself."

King Hezekiah of Israel trusted in the Lord to deliver Israel from Sennacherib and the Assyrians. You can read about the story in II Chronicles 32 or II Kings 18-19.
http://www.christianheadlines.com...-under-tomb-of-prophet-jonah.html

.
BornAgain2

CJ wrote:
King Sennacherib Palace Discovered
Mar 8, 2017  
-  Palace of Biblical Assyrian King Sennacherib Discovered under Tomb of Prophet Jonah.
ISIS destroyed the tomb of the prophet Jonah which was on top of the palace.  ISIS is often compared to the brutal merciless Assyrians.  Archaeologists now have the chance to study new discoveries.

The palace of King Sennacherib dates back to the seventh century B.C. The Assyrian King is mentioned in the Bible in II Chronicles 32:1 which says, "After all that Hezekiah had so faithfully done, Sennacherib king of Assyria came and invaded Judah. He laid siege to the fortified cities, thinking to conquer them for himself."

King Hezekiah of Israel trusted in the Lord to deliver Israel from Sennacherib and the Assyrians. You can read about the story in II Chronicles 32 or II Kings 18-19.
http://www.christianheadlines.com...-under-tomb-of-prophet-jonah.html

.


Thank you again for this - I got saved in 2009, but since then there has been a lot of genuine biblical, archeological discoveries! Praise God!
CJ

Ming Dynasty mummies
Mar 27, 2017  
-  500 year old Ming Dynasty mummies unearthed at Chinese construction site.  Crew was attempting to install plumbing, unearthing a tomb containing the mummies of a couple believed to date back to the Ming Dynasty.  The discovery was made in Taikang county in Zhoukou, Henan province. Other discoveries found at the site included a tombstone and two crystal coffins.
https://www.rt.com/news/382427-china-ming-dynasty-mummies


Over 10,000 items from a gold and silver treasure dating back to the Ming Dynasty 300 years ago have been discovered at the bottom of a river in southwest China’s Sichuan Province.   Gold, silver, and bronze coins were among some of the items recovered at the junction of the Minjiang and Jinjiang rivers about 50 kilometers (31 miles) south of Chengdu.
https://www.rt.com/viral/381595-10000-pieces-300yo-gold

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